Muhammad Ayub Khan

Other names: 

Mohammad Ayub Khan



Sandhurst GU15 4PQ
United Kingdom
51° 20' 59.6004" N, 0° 44' 46.4208" W
Date of birth: 
14 May 1907
City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Current name country of birth: 
Date of death: 
19 Apr 1974
Location of death: 
Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Date of 1st arrival in Britain: 
01 Jul 1926
Precise 1st arrival date unknown: 
Dates of time spent in Britain: 



Sandhurst Royal Military College, Surrey


Muhammad Ayub Khan was born in Rehana in 1907. His father was a Risaldar Major in the Indian Army. In 1922, he enrolled at Aligarh University but before completing his studies he was selected for entry to the Royal Military College in Sandhurst, England.

He sailed for England in July 1926 on the SS Rawalpindi, with six other Indian cadets. He was the first foreign cadet to be promoted to Corporal. Ayub Khan passed first among the Indian cadets (about 60th among 123 cadets) in 1928. His first commission was with the Royal Fusiliers in Eastern Punjab and then to the 1st/14th Punjab regiment.

During the Second World War he was Second-in-Command of a regiment in Burma and commanded a regiment in India. After Partition he rapidly rose through the ranks of the Pakistan Army from Major General to Commander-in-Chief to become Minister of Defence in 1954. In 1958, President Iskander Mirza suspended the constitution and appointed Ayub Khan Chief Martial Law Administrator. A few weeks later Ayub Khan declared himself President of Pakistan and Mirza was exiled. He reorganized the administration and sought to restore the economy. In 1965 Ayub Khan was re-elected, but by 1969 internal turmoil had become so intense that he resigned on 26 March. He died in 1974.


J. R. Bhosle (at Sandhurst together), J. N. Chaudhuri (at Sandhurst together), Iskander Mirza, Khawaja Nazimuddin, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy.

Published works: 

In the Words of the President: Extracts from the Speeches of General Mohammad Ayub Khan (Karachi: Department of Advertising, Films and Publications, 1959) 

Speeches and Statements by Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan, President of Pakistan, vol. 5, July 1962-June 1963 ([S. I.]: Pakistan Publications, 1963)

'Economic Well Being Prerequisite for Peace' (London: Information Department, High Commission for Pakistan, 1964)

Friends, Not Masters: A Political Autobiography (London: Oxford University Press, 1967) 

Pakistan's Economic Progress (London: Royal Institute of International Affair, 1967)

President Ayub on Educational Revolution (Rawalpindi: Sardar Mohammad Aslam Khan, 1968)

(with Rada Khudada) Agricultural Revolution in Pakistan (Lahore: Rana Tractors and Equipment, 1968)

Secondary works: 

Akhtar, Jamna Das, Political Conspiracies in Pakistan: Liaquat Ali's Murder to Ayub Khan's Exit (Delhi: Punjab Pustak Bhandar, 1969) 

Baxter, Craig (ed.), Diaries of Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan, 1966-1972 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007)

Gauhar, Altaf, Ayub Khan: Pakistan's First Military Ruler (Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 1993)

Haider, S. M., Public Administration and Police in Pakistan: Incorporating Report of a Seminar on Police Administration Inaugurated by President Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan (Peshawar: Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, 1968)

Jafri, Rais Ahmad, Ayub: Soldier and Statesman: Speeches and Statements (1958-1965) of Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan, President of Pakistan and a Detailed Account of the Indo-Pakistan War, 1965 (Lahore: Mohammad Ali Academy, 1966)

Newman, Karl J., Pankalla, Heinz, and Krumbein-Neumann, Robert, Pakistan unter Ayub Khan, Bhutto und Zia-ul-Haq (München; London: Weltforum, 1986)

Pakistan, President Ayub Khan on the Record (President's Interview to Press and Radio, London Airport, July 5 1964) (London: Ministry of External Affair, High Commission for Pakistan, Information Department, 1964) 

Pakistan Reconstructed: A Pictorial History of Nine Years of Pakistan's Achievements under President Ayub, Oct. 1958-Oct. 1967 (Rawalpindi: Pakistan Muslim League, 1967)

Pakistan-Soviet Relations: President Mohammad Ayub Khan's Visit to the U.S.S.R., September 25-October 4, 1967 (Karachi: Department of Films and Publications, Government of Pakistan, 1967)

President Ayub in the Eyes of the World (Karachi: Pakistan Publications, 1965)

President Ayub's Offer of Friendship to India (Karachi, 1964)

President Mohammad Ayub Khan: A Profile (Karachi: Pakistan Publications, 1961)

Suleri, Z. A., Politicians and Ayub: Being a Survey of Pakistani Politics from 1948 to 1964 (Lahore: Lion Art Press, 1964)

Ziring, Lawrence, The Ayub Khan Era: Politics in Pakistan, 1958-1969 (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1971)


Khan, Mohammad Ayub, Friends, Not Masters: A Political Autobiography (London: Oxford University Press, 1967), p.10


There was a sizable community of Indian cadets at Sandhurst at that time and we clung to one another. Somehow we all sensed that we were regarded as an inferior species. The British did not practice the colour bar in a blatant manner, as in some countries, but they were no less colour conscious. In those days anyone coming from a subject race was regarded as an inferior human being and this I found terribly galling. The tragedy of belonging to a subject race depressed us more poignantly in the free air of England.