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Professor Toni Gladding

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Externally funded projects

Emissions of Microorganisms from IndusTrial Sources (EMITS)
RoleStart dateEnd dateFunding source
Lead18 Mar 201917 Oct 2021Innovate UK

Sampling for airborne microorganisms downwind of waste management and intensive farming facilities is an area that requires further research – these types of facilities are known to emit bioaerosols of health significance but currently there is a lack of information on the most appropriate sampling techniques, target microorganisms, analytical approaches and the best way in which to achieve an accurate representation of emissions from facilities which recognises their spatial and temporal nature.

Mixed cultures of unidentified microorganisms from various locations around the household - Household SEM
RoleStart dateEnd dateFunding source
Lead01 Nov 201630 Nov 2016Sciencephoto

Swabs of a mobile phone, dish cloth, nostril and fingertips will be taken, and the resulting microbial cultures imaged using scanning electron microscopy.

Detection and Characterisation of Inflammatory Agents Associated with Bioaerosol Emitted from Biowaste and Intensive Agriculture
RoleStart dateEnd dateFunding source
Lead13 May 201531 Dec 2018NERC Natural Environment Research Council

This project focuses on detection and characterisation of inflammatory agents in bioaerosol emitted from biowaste and intensive agriculture. It is known that cellular components (e.g. endotoxin and glucan) are emitted by composting and farming. Endotoxin binds to receptors associated with many cell types generating pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in inflammatory response in exposed people. Endotoxin has advantages as a bioaerosol metric – it is: • detectable through robust methods • a broad-spectrum indicator of bacterially-derived (Gram negative) bioaerosol • the only bioaerosol component for which an exposure limit to protect the general population is currently realistic. Whilst promising, only a small database exists of endotoxin concentrations around composting / farming facilities and little is known about exposure of the general population (as opposed to occupational exposure). Little knowledge exists on the size fractions that airborne endotoxin is associated with, the relative importance of whole cells (live/dead), vesicles and disrupted fragments, or its dispersion properties. Although robust detection methods exist, there are presently no rapid or continuous detection methods available.


Nitrous oxide emissions from trees planted on a closed landfill site (2023-04)
Fraser-McDonald, Alice; Boardman, Carl; Gladding, Toni; Burnley, Stephen and Gauci, Vincent
AIMS Environmental Science, 10(2) (pp. 313-324)

Methane emissions from trees planted on a closed landfill site (2022-11)
Fraser-McDonald, Alice; Boardman, Carl; Gladding, Toni; Burnley, Stephen and Gauci, Vincent
Waste Management & Research, 40(11) (pp. 1618-1628)

Methane emissions from forested closed landfill sites: Variations between tree species and landfill management practices (2022-09-10)
Fraser-McDonald, A.; Boardman, C.; Gladding, T.; Burnley, S. and Gauci, V.
The Science of The Total Environment, 838, Article 156019(Part 2)

The work of waste during COVID-19: logics of public, environmental, and occupational health (2022)
Garnett, Emma; Balayannis, Angeliki; Hinchliffe, Steve; Davies, Thom; Gladding, Toni and Nicholson, Phillip
Critical Public Health, 32(5) (pp. 630-640)

Concentration and composition of bioaerosol emissions from intensive farms: Pig and poultry livestock (2020-10-15)
Gladding, T.L.; Rolph, C.A.; Gwyther, C.L.; Kinnersley, R.; Walsh, K. and Tyrrel, S.
Journal of Environmental Management, 272, Article 111052

Scoping studies to establish the capability and utility of a real-time bioaerosol sensor to characterise emissions from environmental sources (2019-01-15)
Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Hayes, Enda; Williams, Ben; Gladding, Toni and Rolph, Catherine
Science of the Total Environment, 648 (pp. 25-32)

A Controlled Study on the Characterisation of Bioaerosols Emissions from Compost (2018-09-28)
Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Rolph, Catherine; Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Gladding, Toni L.; Hayes, Enda; Williams, Ben; Khera, Shagun; Jackson, Simon; Bennett, Allan; Parks, Simon; Kinnersley, Robert P.; Walsh, Kerry; Pollard, Simon J.T.; Drew, Gillian; Alcega, Sonia Garcia; Coulon, Frederic and Tyrrel, Sean
Atmosphere, 9, Article 379(10)

Sources of Airborne Endotoxins in Ambient Air and Exposure of Nearby Communities—A Review (2018)
Rolph, Catherine A.; Gwyther, Ceri L.; Tyrrel, Sean F.; Nasir, Zaheer A.; Drew, Gillian H.; Jackson, Simon K.; Khera, Shagun; Hayes, Enda T.; Williams, Ben; Bennett, Allan; Collins, Samuel; Walsh, Kerry; Kinnersley, Rob and Gladding, Toni L.
Atmosphere, 9, Article 375(10)

The challenges, uncertainties and opportunities of bioaerosol dispersion modelling from open composting facilities (2017-04-25)
Williams, Ben; Hayes, Enda; Nasir, Zaheer; Rolph, Catherine; Jackson, Simon; Khera, Shagun; Bennett, Alan; Gladding, Toni; Drew, Gillian and Tyrrel, Sean
Air Pollution XXV, 211 (pp. 51-59)

A study of the potential release of bioaerosols from containers as a result of reduced frequency residual waste collections (2017-01-15)
Gladding, Toni L. and Gwyther, Ceri L.
Science of the Total Environment, 576 (pp. 481-489)

Waste electrical and electronics equipment: do new regulations promote sustainability? (2008-12)
Gladding, Toni
International Journal of Performability Engineering, 4(4) (pp. 319-332)

Organic dust exposure and work-related effects among recycling workers (2003-06)
Gladding, Toni; Thorn, Jorgen and Stott, David
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 43(6) (pp. 584-591)

Environment management report. Focus on Waste Management (2006)
Yoxon, Mark; Burnley, Stephen and Gladding, Toni
ISBN : 0-580-48412-2 | Publisher : British Standards Institution | Published : London

Health risks of materials recycling facilities (2002-11)
Gladding, T.L.
In: Hester, R.E. and Harrison, R.M. eds. Environmental and health impact of solid waste management activities. Issues in environmental science and technology (18) (pp. 53-72)
ISBN : 854042857 | Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry | Published : Cambridge, UK

Bubbles are rockets for microbes: predicting microbial dispersion in Enceladus’s plumes based on bubbling in Iceland’s geothermal springs. (2024)
Aldis, Angus; Fox-Powell, Mark; Gladding, Toni; Olsson-Francis, Karen and Stephens, Ben
In : UKPF 2024 Conference (15 Jan 2024, Imperial College London)

Greenhouse gas emissions from trees planted on closed landfill sites (2021-10-12)
Fraser-McDonald, Alice; Boardman, Carl; Gladding, Toni; Burnley, Stephen and Gauci, Vincent
In : Sardinia Symposium 2021 (11-15 Oct 2021, Online)

Tree stem greenhouse gas emissions from forested closed landfill sites (2021-04-29)
Fraser-McDonald, Alice; Boardman, Carl; Gladding, Toni; Burnley, Stephen and Gauci, Vincent
In : EGU General Assembly 2021 (19-30 Apr 2021, Online)

Towards improved bioaerosol model validation and verification (2018-06-19)
Williams, Ben; Hayes, Enda; Nasir, Zaheer; Rolph, Catherine; Jackson, Simon; Khera, Shagun; Bennett, Alan; Gladding, Toni; Drew, Gillian; Longhurst, James and Tyrrel, Sean
In : Air Pollution 2019 (26-28 Jun 2019, Aveiro, Portugal) (pp. 41-50)

Plastic Microbial Acclimation and Optimisation of Composting and Anaerobic Digestion Processes may Improve Degradation Times (2017-10-02)
Boardman, C. P.; Summers, S. S.; Olsson-Francis, K. and Gladding, T.
In : 16th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium (Sardinia 2017) (2-6 Oct 2017, S. Margherita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy,)

Greenhouse gas emissions from non-recyclable residual household waste within domestic wheeled bins (2015-10-05)
Boardman, C.; Burnley, S.; Gauci, V. and Gladding, T.
In : 15th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium (Sardinia 2015) (5-9 Oct 2015, S. Margherita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy)

Research into the issues associated with people sleeping in waste containers (2020-02)
Gladding, Toni; Rolph, Catherine and Wright, Paul

Monitoring bioaerosol and odour emissions from composting facilities - WR1121 (2013-08-20)
Williams, Melanie; Lamarre, Baptiste; Butterfield, David; Tyrrel, Sean; Longhurst, Phil; Drew, Gillian; Al-Ashaab, Reyna; Nelson, Alan; Gladding, Toni; Simpson, Annika; Coughlin, Toni and Hansell, Anna
DEFRA, London.

Evidence: Biofilter performance and operation as related to commercial composting (2013-04)
Frederickson, J.; Boardman, C. P.; Gladding, T. L.; Simpson, A. E.; Howell, G. and Sgouridis, F.
Environment Agency, Bristol.

Scoping study of potential health effects of fortnightly residual waste collection and related changes to domestic waste systems (2009-07)
Gladding, Toni
Waste Resources Action Programme

Review of Environmental and Health Effects of Waste Management: Municipal Solid Waste and Similar Wastes (2004)
Enviros Consulting Ltd., ; University of Birmingham, ; Risk and Policy Analysts Ltd., ; The Open University, group; Gladding, Toni and Thurgood, Maggie