All-India Muslim League

Liaquat Ali Khan


Muhammad Liaquat Ali Khan was born on 1 October 1895 to father Nawab Rustam Ali Khan and mother Mahmuda Begum of Rajour in Karnal, Punjab. In 1910, he enrolled in the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, then went on to college, from which he graduated in 1918. Shortly thereafter he returned to Karnal to marry his cousin Jehangira Begum, with whom he had a son, Wilayat, in 1919. Later in September 1919, he sailed for England where he enrolled at St. Catherine's College, Oxford, in January 1920. 

It was in Oxford he started taking an interest in politics, and he participated in the Oxford Union and debated with the Oxford Majlis, of which he was elected treasurer. It was also in Oxford that he came into contact with other people who were to play a role in Indian politics: Shoaib Qureshi, M. C. Chagla and Abdur Rehman Siddiqui, and the future historian brothers, Muhammad Habib and Muhammad Mujib. Other acquaintances included P. N. Sapru, the son of Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, and K. P. S. Menon. He moved to Exeter College, Oxford, from where he attained a BA degree in Jurisprudence in June 1921, before he went to London to the Inner Temple and was called to the Bar in January 1922. He then toured several countries on the European continent before returning to India in late 1922.

Liaquat joined the All-India Muslim League in 1923. He was elected for the Legislative Council in 1926 and had a successful career in the next decade. In 1931, Liaquat became the Deputy President of the Legislative Council and gained more power. In 1933 in London, he testified before the Joint Statutory Commission which had come out of the Round Table Conferences. Liaquat had already met Mohammed Ali Jinnah in 1924 but they were to become close friends and political allies in the 1930s. Jinnah had spoken at the Round Table Conference in London and settled there afterwards. When Liaquat visited in 1933, he urged Jinnah to return to India and lead the Muslims there. Jinnah returned in 1935 and asked Liaquat to become the General-Secretary of the Muslim League in April 1936. In 1941 Liaquat was elected to the Legislative Assembly of India. In 1946, Jinnah nominated Liaquat to be the first Indian Finance Member and after independence in 1947, Jinnah appointed Liaquat the first Prime Minister of Pakistan.

On 16 October 1951, Liaquat was scheduled to address the public in the city of Rawalpindi. He said one sentence before he was shot in the chest by Said Akbar. His last words are said to have been: 'May God protect Pakistan'.

Published works: 

United Provinces Legislative Council Proceedings, 37 (1928)

Pakistan: The Heart of Asia ([S. I.]: Harvard University Press, 1950)

(with M. Rafique Afzal) Speeches and Statements of Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan (1941-51)  (Lahore: Lahore Research Society of Pakistan, 1967)


Menon, K. P. S., 'Days at Oxford', in Ziauddin Ahmad (ed.) Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan: Leader and Statesman (Karachi: the Oriental Academy, 1970), pp. 102-4 at p. 104.

Date of birth: 
01 Oct 1895

K. P. S. Menon recounts his memories of Liaquat Ali Khan as a student at Oxford in the 1920s.


N. B. Bonarjee (at Oxford), M. C. Chagla, Muhammad Habib, Muhammad Ismail, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Sardar Amir Azam Khan, K. P. S. Menon, Muhammad Mujib, Shoaib Qureshi, P. N. Sapru, Abdur Rehman Siddiqui, Lord Wavell.


He was a man who seemed to have reserves of strength, who was content to bide his time. He would not play to the gallery, whether at the Oxford Union or the Indian Majlis. He did attend both regularly and took part in the debates occasionally, but he did not pose as a super-patriot or indulge in violent and meaningless talk. In his own quiet way he took part in the multifarious activites of the University; he enjoyed punting and was an accomplished tennis player. Above all, he was a good host, and I retain pleasant memories of his parties, where good conversation flowed as gently and freely as good wine.

Secondary works: 

Ahmad, Ziauddin (ed.), Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan: Leader and Statesman (Karachi: the Oriental Academy, 1970) 

Ahmad, Ziauddin, Shaheed-e-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan: Builder of Pakistan (Karachi: Royal Book Company, 1990)

Akhtar, Jamna Das, Political Conspiracies in Pakistan: Liaquat Ali's Murder to Ayub Khan's Exit (Delhi: Punjabi Pustak Bhandar, 1969)

Allana, G., 'Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan', in Our Freedom Fighters, 1562-1947: Twenty-One Great Lives (Karachi: Paradise Subscription Agency, 1969), pp. 281-94.

Amin, Shahid M., Pakistan's Foreign Policy: A Reappraisal (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000)

Chattopadhyay, Raghabendra, Indian National Congress and the Indian Bourgeoisie: Liaquat Ali Khan's Budget of 1947-48 (Calcutta: Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, 1986) 

Fazeel, Ali Ahmed, 'With Pakistan's First Prime Minister', Sun, Karachi, 16 October 1975

Jinnah, Mahomed Ali, Gandhi, Mahatma, and Rajagopalachari, C., Jinnah-Gandhi Talks, September, 1944: Text of Correspondence and Other Relevant Documents, foreword by Liaquat Ali Khan (Delhi: Central Office, All India Muslim League, 1944)

Kazmi, Muhammad Raza, Liaquat Ali Khan: His Life and Work (Karachi: Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi, 1997)

Khan, Liaquat Ali, Long, Roger D., and Wolpert, Stanley, 'Dear Mr Jinnah': Selected Correspondence and Speeches of Liaquat Ali Khan, 1937-1947 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)

Kha, Sardar Amir Azam, 'Quaid-i-Millat', Pakistan Standard, Karachi, 16 October 1955 

Liaquat Ali Khan, Ra'ana, and Douglas, F. D., Challenge and Change: Speeches (Karachi: All Pakistan Women's Association, 1979)

Masroor, Mehr Nigar, Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan: A Biography (Karachi: All Pakistan Woman's Association, 1980)

Miles, Kay, Liaquat: The Man of Destiny (Karachi: All Pakistan Women's Association, c. 1953)

Omar, Kaleem, 'The American Press on Liaquat', The News, 22 October 2000

Pakistan, Pakistan Today: A Souvenir of the Visit to the United States of America of the Honourable Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan, Prime Minister of Pakistan, and Begum Liaquat Ali Khan, May, 1950 (Washington, D.C., 1950) .

Shushtari, Zayn Al-Abidin, Fath-ul-Mujahideen: A Treatise on the Rules and Regulations of Tipu Sultan's Army and His Principles of Strategy, with a foreword by Liaquat Ali Khan (Karachi: Urdu Academy Sind, 1950)

Archive source: 

National Archives of Pakistan, Islamabad

National Archives of India, Delhi

India Office Files, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Other names: 

Nawabzada Muhammad Liaquat Ali Khan

Liaqat Ali Khan


St Catherine's College Oxford, OX1 3UJ
United Kingdom
51° 45' 20.7288" N, 1° 14' 39.0624" W
Exeter College Oxford, OX1 3DP
United Kingdom
51° 45' 13.5612" N, 1° 15' 22.626" W
Date of death: 
16 Oct 1951
Location of death: 
Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Date of 1st arrival in Britain: 
01 Sep 1919
Precise 1st arrival date unknown: 
Dates of time spent in Britain: 

1919-22, 1933

Mohammad Iqbal


Mohammad Iqbal was born in 1877 in Sialkot, Punjab, to father Sheikh Nuruddin Mohammad, a tailor by profession and of Kashmiri background, and mother Imam Bibi. He was educated at the Scotch Mission College, where he also took up poetry, and later, in 1895, at Government College, Lahore, where he would come into contact with Sir Thomas Arnold. In 1903, he published a treatise on economics entitled Ilmul-Iqtesad, and in 1904 he wrote the Indian patriotic song Sare Jahan se Achccha Hindostan Hamara. He would once again work with Thomas Arnold when he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, as a student of Philosophy in 1905. He obtained his degree at Cambridge and went on to Munich University where he obtained a doctorate; his thesis was entitled The Development of Metaphysics in Persia. He later qualified as a barrister. In London, he delivered a series of lectures; his lecture at Caxton Hall was widely reported in the papers. While in Europe, Iqbal became influenced by Kant, Bergson and especially Nietzsche.

In August 1908 he returned to Lahore where he joined the Government College as a part-time professor of philosophy and English literature while also practising as a lawyer in Lahore Chief Court. After a while, he resigned from the College and focused on law. Besides law he found time to develop his poetry in the 1920s, but he was also drawn into politics by his friends, Jogendra Singh, Zulfikar Ali Khan and Khawaja Shahabuddin. His Persian masnavi sequence Asrar-i Khudi (1915; Secrets of the Self (1920)) and Rumuz-i Bekhudi (1918; 'The Mysteries of Selflessness') were the foundation of Iqbal's philosophical poetry. In them he combined his ideas of the ego striving to achieve freedom and to develop a fuller personality with the moral, spiritual and intellectual values of Islam. He continued to develop these ideas in his poetry for the rest of his life. It is on the basis of these that he is know as the poet-philosopher of Pakistan.

From 1926 to 1930 he served on the Punjab Legislative Council and was President of the All-India Muslim League in 1930. That same year, he gave evidence before the Simon Commission and in 1931-2 he was a delegate to the Second and Third Round Table Conferences, visiting London again. He dissociated himself from the idea of Pakistan as a country carved out of Muslim majority states of the Indian sub-continent. By the mid-1930s, his health had deteriorated so much that he had to decline to give a series of Rhodes lectures at Oxford in 1935. He continued to write poetry but died on 21 April 1938. He is buried near the Shahi Mosque in Lahore.

Published works: 

Ilmul-Iqtesad (1903) 

Armaqhan-i Hijaz (Lahaur: Javid Iqbal, [19--])

The Development of Metaphysics in Persia: A Contributon to the History of Muslim Philosophy (London: Luzac & Co., 1908) 

Asrar-i Khudi (1915)

Rumuz-e-Bekhudi (1917)

Secrets of the Self: A Philosophical Poem, translated from the original Persian, with introduction and notes by Reynold A. Nicholson (1920)

Bang-e-Dara (1924)

Payam-e-Mashriq (1924)

Pas Chih Bayad Kard, ay Aqram-i Sharq (1926)

Zabur-e-Ajam (1927)

Javed Nama (1932)

The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (London: Oxford University Press, 1934)

Bal-i Jibril (Lahaur: Taj Kampani, 1935)

Darb-i-Kalim (1936)

Pa Cheh Bayad Kard ay Aqwam-i-Sharq (1936)

Armughan-e-Hijaz (1938)

The Tulip of Sinai (London: Royal India Society, 1947)

The Mysteries of Selflessness: A Philosophical Poem, translated with introduction and notes by Arthur J. Arberry (London: J. Murray, 1953)

(with S. Y. Hashimy) Islam as an Ethical and a Political Ideal (Lahore: Orientalia, [1908] 1955)

Poems from Iqbal, translated by V. B. Kiernan (London: John Murray, 1955)

Persian Psalms, translated into English verse by A. J. Arberry (1961)

Javid-Nama, translated from the Persian with introduction and notes by Arthur J. Arberry (London: Allen & Unwin, 1966)

A Message from the East (Karachi: Iqbal Academy Pakistan, 1971)

Islam and Ahmadism (Lucknow: Academy of Islamic Research and Publications, 1974)

Mission of Islam (New Delhi: Vikas, 1977)

Letters and Writings of Iqbal, compiled and edited by B. A. Dar (Karachi: Iqbal Academy, 1967)

Date of birth: 
09 Nov 1877

B. R. Ambedkar, Syed Ameer Ali, Maulana Mohammad Ali, Chaudhary Rahmat Ali, T. W. Arnold, Abul Kalam Azad, Syed Hassan Bilgrami, Atiya Fyzee, Sayyid Mir Hassan, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Aga Khan, John McTaggart, William Rothenstein, Edward John Thompson, James Ward.

Contributions to periodicals: 



Secondary works: 

There are over 800 secondary works on Iqbal. Below we have included a selection of those: 

Abbas, Syed Ghulam, Dr. Muhammad Iqbal: The Humanist: A Reassesment of the Poetry and Personality of the Poet-Philosopher of the East (Lahore: Iqbal Academy, 1997) 

Ahmad, Absar, Concept of Self and Self-Identity in Contemporary Philosophy: An Affirmation of Iqbal's Doctrine (Lahore: Iqbal Academy Pakistan, 1986)

Ahmad, Aziz, Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan, 1857-1964 (London: Oxford University Press, 1967)

Ahmad, Doris, Iqbal as I Knew Him (Lahore: Iqbal Academy Pakistan, 1986)

Ahmad, S. Aasan, Iqbal: His Political Ideas at the Crossroads: A Commentary on Unpublished Letters to Professor Thompson with Photographic Reproductions of the Original Letters (Aligarh: Print vol Publications, 1979)

Ahsan, A. Shakoor, An Appeciation of Iqbal's Thought and Art (Lahore: Research Society of Pakistan, University of the Punjab, 1985)

Ali, Parveen Shaukat, The Political Philosophy of Iqbal (Lahore: Publishers United, 1970)

Aqeel, Moinuddin, Iqbal: From Finite to Infinite: Evolution of the Concept of Islamic Nationalism in India
(Karachi: Abul Kalam Azad Research Instititute, 1986)

Ashraf, S. E., A Critical Exposition of Iqbal's Philosophy (Patna: Associated Book Agency, 1978)

Azad, Jagan Nath, Iqbal: His Poetry and Philosophy (Mysore: Prasaranga, 1981)

Bilgrami, Hamid Hasan, Glimpses of Iqbal's Mind and Thought: Brief Lectures on Iqbal Delivered at London, Cambridge and Oxford (Lahore: Orientalia, 1954)

Biswas, Lakshmi, Tagore and Iqbal: A Study in Philosophical Perspective (Delhi: Capital Publishing House, 1991)

Burney, Sayed Muzaffar Husain, Iqbal and National Integration (Chandigarh: Haryana Sahitya Akademi, 1986)

Chaghatai, Muhammad Ikram, Iqbal and Goethe (Lahore: Iqbal Academy Pakistan, 2000)

Cughtai, Muhammad Ikram, Goethe, Iqbal and the Orient (Lahore: Iqbal Academy Pakistan, 1999)

Dar, Bashir Ahmad, A Study in Iqbal's Philosophy (Lahore: Ghulam Ali and Sons, 1971)

Dhawan, Madan Lal, Iqbal and His Equals (Delhi: Bhavna Prakashan, 1986)

Enver, Ishrat Hasan, The Metaphysics of Iqbal (Lahore: Muhammad Ashraf, 1944)

Ghani, Abdul, The English Translations of Iqbal's Poetry: A Critical and Evaluative Study  (Lahore: Bazm-i Iqbal, 2004)

Gibb, H. A. R., 'Iqbal, Sir Muhammad (1877-1938)', rev. Francis Robinson, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) []

Grover, Verinder, Mohammad Iqbal: A Biography of His Vision and Ideas (New Delhi: Deep & Deep, 1998)

Hamid, Muhammad, The Poet Philosopher of Fifteenth Century Hijrah (Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 1980)

Haq, Q. M., and Waley,  M. I., Allama Sir Muhammad Iqbal: Poet-Philosopher of the East (London: British Museum Publications Ltd for the British Library, 1977)

Hasan, Masudul, Life of Iqbal: General Account of His life (Lahore: Ferozsons, 1978) 

Hasan, Mohammad, A New Approach to Iqbal (New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 1987)

Hassan, Parveen Feroze, The Political Philosophy of Iqbal (Lahore: Publishers United, 1970)

Hassan, Riffat, The Sword and the Sceptre: A Collection of Writings on Iqbal, Dealing Mainly with his Life and Political Works (Lahore: Iqbal Academy Pakistan, 1977)

Iqbal, Javid, Stray Reflections: Allama Iqbal's Note-Book (Lahore: Iqbal Academy, 1992)

Iqbal, Saeeda, Islamic Rationalism in the Subcontinent: With Special Refernce to Shah Waliullah, Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Allama Muhammad Iqbal (Lahore: Islamic Book Service, 1984)

Jawed, Mohammad Aslam, The Unknown Iqbal (New Delhi: Kitab Publishing House, 1996)

Kazmi, Syed Latif Hussain, Philosophy of Iqbal: Iqbal and Existentialism (New Delhi: A. P. H., 1997)

Khan, Asif Iqbal, Some Aspects of Iqbal's Thought (Lahore: Islamic Book Service, 1977)

Khan, Zulfiqar Ali, A Voice from the East: The Poetry of Iqbal (Lahore: Mercantile Electric Press, 1922)

Khanum, Sajida Adeeb, Iqbal as a Philosopher (Hyderabad: Abul Kalam Azad Oriental Research Institute, 1982)

Khatana, Manzoor H., Iqbal and Foundations of Pakistani Nationalism, 1857-1947 (Lahore: Book Traders, 1992)

Majeed, Javed, Autobiography, Travel and Postnational Identity: Gandhi, Nehru and Iqbal (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)

Majeed, Javed, Iqbal: Islam and Postcolonialism in South Asia (London: Taylor & Francis, 2007)

Malik, Ghulam Rasool, Iqbal and the English Romantics (New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, 1988)

Malik, Hafeez, Iqbal: Poet-Philosopher of Pakistan (New York; London: Columbia University Press, 1971)

Malik, Nadeem Shafiq, The Political Segacity of Iqbal (Islamabad: National Book Foundation, 1998)

Malik, Rashida, Iqbal: The Spiritual Father of Pakistan (Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2003)

Maruf, Mohammed, Iqbal and His Contemporary Western Religious Thought (Lahore: Iqbal Academy Pakistan, 1987)

May, Lini S., Iqbal: His Life and Times, 1877-1938 (Lahore: Ashraf, 1974)

Mir, Mustansir, Iqbal: Makers of Islamic Civilization (London: I. B. Tauris, 2005)

Mujadir, Sharif, Allama Iqbal: Poet-Philosopher of the East (Karachi: Quaid-i-Azam Academy, 1986)

Munawwar, Muhammad, Iqbal: Poet-Philosopher of Islam (Lahore: Islamic Book Foundation, 1982)

Naim, C. M., Iqbal, Jinnah and Pakistan: The Vision and the Reality (Lahore: Vanguard Books, 1984)

Popp, Stephan, Muhammad Iqbal's Romanticism of Power: A Post-Structural Approach to his Persian Lyrical Poetry (Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2004)

Qaiser, Nazir, Iqbal and the Western Philosophers: A Comparative Study (Lahore: Iqbal Academy Pakistan, 2001)

Rafique, M., Sri Aurobindo and Iqbal: A Comparative Study of Their Philosophy (Aligarh: Alogarh Muslim University, 1974)

Rahim, Khawaja Abdur, Iqbal: The Poet of Tomorrow (Lahore: Ferozsons, 1968)

Rahman, Mujibur, Iqbal: The Great Poet Philosopher of the Muslim World (Lahore: Iqbal Academy Pakistan, 2004)

Raina, Chaman Lal, Iqbal and the Indian Heritage (Srinagar: Iqbal Institute, University of Kashmir, 1988)

Raja, Tasadduq Husain, and Siddique, Qazi Muhammad, Iqbal: A Cosmopolitan Poet (Lahore: Iqbal Academy Pakistan, 1996)

Rashis, Khwaja Abdur, Iqbal, Quran and the Western World (Lahore: Progressive Books, 1978)

Rastogi, Tara Charan, Western Influence in Iqbal (New Delhi: Ashish Publ. House, 1987)

Rehman, S. A., andBrohi,  A. K., Iqbal and Socialism (Karachi: Hamdard National Foundation, 1974)

Saiyidain, Khwaja Ghulam, Iqbal's Educational Philosophy (Lahore: Arafat Publications, 1938)

Schimmel, Annemarie, Gabriel's Wing: A Study into the Religious Ideas of Sir Muhammad Iqbal (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1963)

Siddiqi, Mazheruddin, The Image of the West in Iqbal (Lahore: Bazm-i-Iqbal, 1956)

Siddiqi, Nazir, Iqbal and Radhakrishnan: A Comparative Study (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1989)

Singh, Iqbal, The Ardent Pilgrim: An Introduction to the Life and Work of Muhammad Iqbal (London: Longmans, 1951)

Singh, Khushwant, Shikwa and Jawab-i-Shikwa: Complaint and Answer: Iqbal's Dialogue with Allah (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1981)

Sinha, Sachchidananda, Iqbal: The Poet and His Message (Allahabad: Ram Narain Lal, 1947)

Taseer, Muhammad Din, Iqbal: The Universal Poet (Lahore: Munib, 1977)

Vahid, Syed Abdul, Glimpses of Iqbal (Karachi: Iqbal Academy Pakistan, 1974) 

Waheeduddin, Faqir Syed, Iqbal in Pictures: A Pictorial Biography of the Famous Poet (Karachi: Lion Art Press, 1965)

Zakaria, Rafiq, Iqbal: The Poet and the Politician (New Delhi: Viking, 1993)

Archive source: 

Iqbal Academy, Lahore

Letters to E. J. Thompson, Bodleian Library, Oxford

Letters to William Rothenstein, Houghton Library, Harvard

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Current name country of birth: 
Other names: 

Allamah Iqbal


Trinity College, Cambridge CB2 1TQ
United Kingdom
52° 10' 21.3528" N, 0° 6' 40.3992" E
Date of death: 
21 Apr 1938
Location of death: 
Lahore, Pakistan
Date of 1st arrival in Britain: 
01 Jan 1904
Precise 1st arrival date unknown: 
Dates of time spent in Britain: 

1904-7, 1931-2

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