Progressive Writers' Association


The Progressive Writers’ Association was established in London in 1935 by Indian writers and intellectuals, with the encouragement and support of some British literary figures. It was in the Nanking Restaurant in central London that a group of writers, including Mulk Raj Anand, Sajjad Zaheer and Jyotirmaya Ghosh drafted a manifesto which stated their aims and objectives: ‘Radical changes are taking place in Indian society…We believe that the new literature of India must deal with the basic problems of our existence to-day – the problems of hunger and poverty, social backwardness, and political subjection. All that drags us down to passivity, inaction and un-reason we reject as re-actionary. All that arouses in us the critical spirit, which examines institutions and customs in the light of reason, which helps us to act, to organize ourselves, to transform, we accept as progressive’ (Anand, pp. 20-21). Comprising mainly Oxford, Cambridge and London university students, the group met once or twice a month in London to discuss and criticize articles and stories.

The PWA built on the foundation of the controversial collection of stories titled Anghare, published in 1932 and edited by Sajjad Zaheer, with contributions also from Ahmed Ali, Mahmuduzzafar and Rashid Jahan. This volume, which provoked considerable hostility in India and was eventually banned because of its political radicalism and also, according to some, obscenity, was influenced by the radical and literary avant-garde movements in Britain, where both Zaheer and Ali had spent some time studying.

In his memoirs, Zaheer claims the leftist writer Ralph Fox was particularly influential in encouraging the formal organization of the group in London. Anand and Zaheer’s attendance of the International Congress for the Defence of Culture in Paris on 21-6 June 1935, with its emphasis on freedom of expression and the interrelationship between art and society, was also an influence. On the peripheries of this congress, Anand went on to present an address at the Conference of the International Association of Writers for the Defence of Culture in London on 19-23 June 1936. The meeting was organized by the International Association of Writers for the Defence of Culture which aimed to stimulate translations and seek publication of works which were censored in the country of the author, as well as to set up a foundation for a world award, and fight, through culture, against war and fascism. Anand and Zaheer internalized much of what was said at these congresses which shaped the central issues of concern for the PWA.

In 1935, Zaheer left London for India via Paris taking the beginnings of the organization back to India for development. The All-India Progressive Writers’ Association had its official inaugural meeting in Lucknow on 9-10 April 1936, with the writer Premchand presiding. The organization continued to campaign for independence and advocate social equality through their writings. It was unfortunately riven by tensions between a desire to strengthen the links of the organization with Communism, and an opposition to this. Those in the latter camp, such as Ahmed Ali, voiced the dangers of the reduction of literature to a vehicle for propaganda. The PWA continued after independence but is said to have lost some of its energy in its later years.

Published works: 

New Indian Literature 1 (London, 1936)

Zaheer, Sajjad (ed.) Anghare (‘Burning Coals’) (1932)


Zaheer, Sajjad, ‘Reminiscences’, in S. Pradhan (ed.) Marxist Cultural Movement in India, Vol. 1 (Calcutta: National Book Agency, 1979)

Other names: 

Progressive Writers' Group

All-India Progressive Writers' Association

Secondary works: 

Anand, Mulk Raj, ‘On the Progressive Writers’ Movement’, in S. Pradhan (ed.) Marxist Cultural Movement in India, Vol. 1 (Calcutta: National Book Agency, 1979)

Coppola, Carlo, ‘The All-India Progressive Writers Association: The European Phase’, in Coppola (ed.) Marxist Influences and South Asian Literature, Vol. 1 (Winter 1974; Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan), pp. 1-34

Gopal, Priyamvada, Literary Radicalism in India: Gender, Nation and the Transition to Independence (London and New York: Routledge, 2005)

Zaheer, Sajjad, The Light: The History of the Movement for Progressive Literature in the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)


In this piece, Zaheer recalls the formation and development of the Progressive Writers’ Association.

Date began: 
24 Nov 1934

We knew from the beginning that living in London we could neither influence Indian literature nor create any good literature ourselves. Side by side with our realising the advantages of forming the association in London, this feeling was strengthened. A few exiled Indians could do little more than draw up plans among themselves and produce an orphanlike literature under the influence of European culture. The most important thing that we learnt in Europe was that a progressive writers’ movement could bear fruits only when it is propagated in various languages and when the writers of India realise the necessity of this movement and put into practice its aims and objects. The best that the London Association could do was to put us in contact with the progressive literary movements abroad, to represent Indian literature in the West and to interpret for India the thoughts of Western writers and the social problems which were profoundly influencing Western literature.

Key Individuals' Details: 

Ahmed Ali (founding member, contributed to Anghare), Mulk Raj Anand (founding member, drafted manifesto), Hajrah Begum, Prem Chand (first President), Ismat Chugtai, Anil D’Silva, Faiz Ahmed Faiz, Jyotirmaya Ghosh (founding member, helped to draft manifesto), Rashid Jahan (founding member, contributed to Anghare), Mahmuduzzafar (founding member, contributed to Anghare), Saadat Hasan Manto, Taseer (attended London meetings), Sajjad Zaheer (founding member, edited Anghare and helped to draft manfesto).


This passage outlines both the importance and the limitations of the location of the foundation of the PWA in London. London was formative to the Association in so far as the European avant-garde movement encountered there by its protagonists, as well as European political events (i.e., the rise of Fascism), instigated and helped to shape its development. Further, the distance of London from India arguably enabled the articulation of a more radical and critical politics than would have been possible within India. However, Zaheer’s notion of an ‘orphanlike’ literature, or a literature in exile, highlights the problematic detachment of the production in Britain of a socially and politically engaged Indian literature from its key concerns and preoccupations.


Suniti Kumar Chatterji, E. M. Forster, Ralph Fox, Attia Hosain, Aldous Huxley, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Herbert Read, John Strachey.

Date ended: 
01 Jan 1956
Precise date ended unknown: 


Nanking Restaurant
Denmark Street
London, WC2H 8LX
United Kingdom
Involved in events details: 

Founding meeting; Nanking Restaurant, London; 24 November 1934.

International Congress for the Defence of Culture, Paris; 21-6 June 1935 (Anand and Zaheer attend; formative to aims of association).

Official inauguration of the All-India Progressive Writers’ Association, Lucknow, April 1936.

Conference of International Association of Writers for the Defence of Culture, London; 19-23 June 1936 (Anand presents address).

John Lehmann


John Lehmann was a writer, poet and publisher. He was the editor of the hugely influential magazine New Writing (1936-40), which also published South Asian writers such as Ahmed Ali and Mulk Raj Anand. He was managing director for Virginia and Leonard Woolf's Hogarth Press from 1938-46, before founding his own publishing company.

Date of birth: 
02 Jun 1907
Secondary works: 

Hughes, David, ‘Lehmann, (Rudolph) John Frederick (1907–1987)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004) [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/39838]

City of birth: 
Bourne End, Buckinghamshire
Country of birth: 
Other names: 

Rudolph John Frederick Lehmann

Date of death: 
07 Apr 1987
Location of death: 


Aldous Huxley


Aldous Leonard Huxley was born near Godalming, Surrey, to Leonard Huxley and Julia Frances Huxley, who was the daughter of Thomas Arnold and niece of Matthew Arnold. He enrolled at Eton College in the autumn of 1908. This coincided with the death of his mother, Julia, which left him devastated. In 1911, he was struck down by a staphylococcic infection in the eye which left near-blind for eighteen months. He went on to study English literature at Balliol College, Oxford. While at Oxford he started writing poetry and short stories.

During the First World War, Huxley worked as a farm labourer at Garsington Manor, home to Lady Ottoline Morrell. Here he met Edith Sitwell, Lytton Strachey, John Maynard Keynes, D. H. Lawrence, Bertrand Russell, Clive Bell and Hasan Shahid Suhrawardy, most of whom were later associated with the Bloomsbury Group. It was at a sherry party in Harold Monro's Poetry Bookshop, Bloomsbury, London, that Huxley first met Mulk Raj Anand, who was then a student of philosophy. Also attendant at the party were Nikhil Sen, Professor Bonamy Dobrée, T. S. Eliot, D. H. Lawrence, Edith Sitwell, Laurence Binyon, Leonard Woolf and John Middleton Murry. They discussed the literature of James Joyce, Mohammad Iqbal, Rudyard Kipling, Rabindranath Tagore and E. M. Forster. In Conversations in Bloomsbury (1981), Anand sums up the party as follows: 'I was too overwhelmed by the presence of these legendary literary men. I felt that they did not know very much about my country, and what they knew was through Kipling, or through superficial impressions, except for Leonard Woolf, who had lived and worked in Ceylon and even resigned from the Civil Service, because he did not want to be a part of Imperialist rule. And Aldous Huxley felt differently from others, and even differed from himself of the days of his Jesting Pilate, because he had doubts about our benign white sahibs. All the others seemed to believe, more or less, in the "Empire on which the sun never sets"' (p. 29).

A few days after the party, Huxley met Anand again; this time in the British Museum Reading Rooms. The two of them went for coffee at Cafe Italiano, overlooking Great Russell Street, near Monro's Bookshop, where they discussed Ananda K. Coomaraswamy's The Dance of Shiva, Kierkegaard, T. S. Eliot, André Gide and D. H. Lawrence, as well as the nature of Englishmen and Indians. In November 1935, Huxley met Jawaharlal Nehru in Oxford. On Nehru's return visit to London in January/February 1936, he was anxious to meet with him again. When his best-selling novel Brave New World (1932) was published, Huxley and his wife were living outside Paris, and in 1937 the couple moved to Hollywood, California.

Huxley's friend Gerald Heard introduced him to Vedanta, meditation and vegetarianism, and he was introduced to J. Krishnamurti and Swami Prabhavananda. As his sight deteriorated, he experimented with LSD and wrote the collection of essays The Doors of Perception, based on his experiences of LSD. By 1962, he had developed cancer, and he died at his home on 22 November 1963.

Published works: 

The Burning Wheel (1916)

Jonah (Oxford: Holywell Press, 1917)

The Defeat of Youth and other Poems (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1918)

Leda (London: Chatto & Windus, 1920)  

Limbo (London: Chatto & Windus, 1920) 

Crome Yellow (London: Chatto & Windus, 1921)

Mortal Coils (London: Chatto & Windus, 1922)

Antic Hay (London: Chatto & Windus, 1923)

On the Margin: Notes and Essays (London: Chatto & Windus, 1923)

(with Frances Chamberlaine Sheridan) The Discovery...Adapted for the Modern Stage by Aldous Huxley (London: Chatto & Windus, 1924)

Little Mexican and other Stories (London: Chatto & Windus, 1924)

Along the Road: Notes and Essays of a Tourist (London: Chatto & Windus, 1925)

Those Barren Leaves (London: Chatto & Windus, 1925)

Essays New and Old (London: Chatto & Windus, 1926)

Jesting Pilate: The Diary of a Journey (London: Chatto & Windus, 1926)

Two or Three Graces and Other Stories (London: Chatto & Windus, 1926)

Proper Studies (London: Chatto & Windus, 1927)

Point Counter Point (London: Chatto & Windus, 1928)

Arabia Infelix and other Poems (London: Chatto & Windus, 1929)

Do What You Will (London: Chatto & Windus, 1929)

Holy Face and other Essays (London: The Fleuron, 1929)

Brief Candles (London: Chatto & Windus, 1930)

Vulgarity in Literature: Digressions from a Theme (London: Chatto & Windus, 1930)

The Cicadas and other Poems (London: Chatto & Windus, 1931)

Music at Night and other Essays (London: Chatto & Windus, 1931)

The World of Light: A Comedy in Three Acts (London: Chatto & Windus, 1931) 

Brave New World (London: Chatto & Windus, 1932)

Texts and Pretexts: An Anthology with Commentaries (London: Chatto & Windus, 1932)

Beyond the Mexique Bay (London: Chatto & Windus, 1934) 

Peace...1936? (London: Friends Peace Committee, 1935)

100,000 Say No!: Aldous Huxley and 'Dick' Shepard Talk About Pacifism (London: Peace Pledge Union, 1936)

The Case for Constructive Peace (London: Chatto & Windus, 1936)

Eyeless in Gaza (London: Chatto & Windus, 1936)

The Olive Tree and other Essays (London: Chatto & Windus, 1936)

Ends and Means: An Enquiry into the Nature of Ideals and the Methods Employed for their Realization (London: Chatto & Windus, 1937) 

The Most Agreeable Vice (Los Angeles: Jake Zeitlin, 1938)

After Many a Summer (London: Chatto & Windus, 1939)

Words and their Meanings (Los Angeles: Ward Ritchie Press, 1940)

Grey Eminence: A Study in Religion and Politics (London: Chatto & Windus, 1941)

The Art of Seeing (New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1942)

Bhagavad-Gita, The Song of God, trans. by Swami Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood, with an introduction by Aldous Huxley (Hollywodd: M. Rood Co., 1944)

The Perennial Philosophy (New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1945)

Time Must Have a Stop (London: Chatto & Windus, 1945)

Science, Liberty and Peace (New York: Harper, 1946)

Ape and Essence (London: Chatto & Windus, 1949)

The Gioconda Smile. A Play (London: Samuel French, 1949)

(with Sir John Russell) Food and People (London: Bureau of Current Affairs, 1949)

Themes and Variations (London: Chatto & Windus, 1950)

The Devils of Loudun (London: Chatto & Windus, 1952)

The Doors of Perception (London: Chatto & Windus, 1954)

The Genius and the Goddess (London: Chatto & Windus, 1955)

Adonis and the Alphabet and other Essays (London: Chatto & Windus, 1956)

Heaven and Hell (London: Chatto & Windus, 1956)

Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow (1956)

Collected Short Stories (London: Chatto & Windus, 1957)

Collected Essays (New York: Harper & Bros., 1958)

Brave New World Revisited (London: Chatto & Windus, 1959)

Island (London: Chatto & Windus, 1962)

Literature and Science (London: Chatto & Windus, 1963)

The Politics of Ecology: The Question of Survival (Santa Barbara: Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, 1963)

The Crows of Pearblossom (London: Chatto & Windus, 1967)

The Travails and Tribulation of Geoffrey Peacock (1967)

Letters of Aldous Huxley, ed. by Grover Smith (London: Chatto & Windus, 1969)

The Human Situation: Lectures at Santa Barbara, 1959 (New York: Harper, 1977)

Moksha: Writings on Psychedelics and the Visionary Experience (New York: Stonehill, 1977)

(with Christopher Isherwood) Jacob's Hands (London: Bloomsbury, 1998)

Aldous Huxley: Selected Letters, ed. by James Sexton (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2007)

Date of birth: 
26 Jul 1894
Contributions to periodicals: 

The Athenaeum



The Listener

Nash's Pall Mall Magazine

The Star

Time and Tide

Vedanta and the West


Westminster Gazette

World Review

Secondary works: 

Anand, Mulk Raj, Conversations in Bloomsbury (London: Wildwood House, 1981) 

Baker, Robert S., The Dark Historic Page: Social Satire and Historicism in the Novels of Aldous Huxley, 1921-1939 (Madison and London: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982) 

Barfoot, C. C., Aldous Huxley between East and West (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2001) 

Bass, Eben E., Aldous Huxley: An Annotated Bibliography of Criticism (New York and London: Garland, 1981)

Baxter, John, The Hollywood Exiles (London: Macdonald & Jane's, 1976)

Bedford, Sybille, Aldous Huxley: A Biography, vol. 1, 1894-1939 (London: Chatto & Windus, Collins, 1973)

Bedford, Sybille, Aldous Huxley: A Biography, vol. 2, 1939-1963 (London: Chatto and Windus, Collins, 1974)

Birnbaum, Milton, Aldous Huxley's Quest for Values (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1971)

Bradshaw, David, The Hidden Huxley: Contempt and Compassion for the Masses, 1920-1936 (London: Faber & Faber, 1994)

Brander, Laurence, Aldous Huxley: A Critical Study (London: Hart-David, 1970)

Brooke, Jocelyn, Aldous Huxley (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1954)

Chakoo, B. L., Aldous Huxley and Eastern Wisdom (Delhi: Atma Ram, 1981)

Chatterjee, Sisir, Aldous Huxley: A Study (Calcutta: S. Paul, 1955)

Clark, Ronald William, The Huxleys (London: Heinemann, 1968)

Deery, June, Aldous Huxley and the Mysticism of Science (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996)

Dunaway, David King, Huxley in Hollywood (New York: Harper & Row, 1989)

Dunaway, David King, Aldous Huxley Recollected: An Oral History (Walnut Creek, CA, and London: AltaMira, 1998) 

Dunaway, David King, 'Huxley, Aldous Leonard (1894-1963)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004) [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/34082]

Firchow, Peter, Aldous Huxley: Satirist and Novelist (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; London: Oxford University Press, 1972)

Firchow, Peter Edgerly, The End of Utopia: A Study of Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1984)

Firchow, Peter Edgerly, Reluctant Modernists: Aldous Huxley and some Contemporaries: A Collection of Essays (Münster: Lit; Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Pubs, 2003)

Gandhi, Kishore, Aldous Huxley: The Search for Perennial Religion (New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1980)

Ghosha, Sisirakumara, Aldous Huxley: A Cynical Salvationist (London and Bombay: Asia Publishing House, [1962])

Gupta, B. S., The Glassy Essence: A Study of E. M. Forster, L. H. Myers and Aldous Huxley in Relation to Indian Thought (Kurukshetra: Kurukshetra University, 1976)

Husain, Shamshad, The Century of Aldous Huxley (Delhi: Al-Shams, 1995)

Huxley, Julian, Aldous Huxley, 1894-1963: A Memorial Volume (London: Chatto & Windus, 1965)

Huxley, Laura Archera, This Timeless Moment: A Personal View of Aldous Huxley (London: Chatto & Windus, 1969)

Krishnan, Bharathi, Aspects of Structure, Technique and Quest in Aldous Huxley's Major Novels (Uppsala: University of Uppsala, 1977)

Meckier, Jerome, Aldous Huxley: Satire and Structure (London: Chatto & Windus, 1969)

Meckier, Jerome, Critical Essays on Aldous Huxley (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice Hall International, 1996)

Meckier, Jerome, Aldous Huxley: Modern Satirical Novelist of Ideas (Münster: Lit; London: Global, 2006)

Murray, Nicholas, Aldous Huxley: An English Intellectual (London: Little, Brown, 2002)

Nance, Guinevera A., Aldous Huxley (New York: Continuum, 1988)

Nichols, Beverley, Are They The Same At Home? (London: Jonathan, 1922)

Nugel, Bernfried, Now More Than Ever: Proceedings of the Aldous Huxley Centenary Symposium, Münster, 1994 (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1995)

Roy, Sumita, Pothen, Annie and Sunita, K. S., Aldous Huxley and Indian Thought (New Delhi: Sterling, 2003)

Sexton, James, Aldous Huxley's Hearst Essays (New York; London: Garland, 1994)

Thody, Philip, Aldous Huxley: A Biographical Introduction (London: Studio Vista, 1973)

Tripathy, Akhilesh Kumar, The Art of Aldous Huxley (Varanasi: Rasmain Tripathy; Varanasi, Students' Friends & Co., 1974)

Watt, Donald J., Aldous Huxley: The Critical Heritage (London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975)

Woodcock, George, Dawn and the Darkest Hour: A Study of Aldous Huxley (London: Faber & Faber, 1972)

Archive source: 

Aldous Huxley Oral History Collection, Huntington Library, San Marino, California

Aldous Huxley Collection, University of California, Los Angeles

Letters, Princeton University, New Jersey

Correspondence and literary papers, Stanford University, California

Letters to S. S. Koteliansky, Add. Ms 48975, British Library, St Pancras

Letters to Sydney and Violet Schiff, Add. Ms 52918, British Library, St Pancras

Correspondence with Sibyl Colefax, Bodleian Library, Oxford

Letters to W. G. H. Sprott, King's College Archive Centre, Cambridge

Correspondence with B. H. Liddell Hart, Liddell Hart Centre, King's College, London

Letters to H. R. L. Sheppard, Lambeth Palace, London

Letters (with others) to J. B. Chapman, University of Aberdeen

Letters to H. E. Herlitschka, University of Reading

Correspondence in Eugenic Society Papers, Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine, London

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Other names: 

Aldous Leonard Huxley

Date of death: 
22 Nov 1963
Dates of time spent in Britain: 

1894-1937, June 1948-1950

Tags for Making Britain: 

D. H. Lawrence


David Herbert Lawrence was born in Eastwood, near Nottingham, to coalminer Arthur Lawrence and Lydia Beardsall. Lawrence won a County Council scholarship and went to Nottingham High School. He did not excel, but went on to teach at the British School in Eastwood. In 1906, he started to write what would eventually become his first novel, The White Peacock (published in 1911). While teaching at Davidson Road elementary school in Croydon in 1908, he continued to write. His friend Jessie Chambers showed his writing to Ford Madox Hueffer (later Ford), who recommended it to William Heinemann for publication.

By 1913, Lawrence had met and married Frieda Emma Maria Johanna, and the two of them lived briefly in Germany (near Munich) and Italy before the First World War. Forced to stay in England, Lawrence soon began to meet the people associated with Garsington Manor around Lady Ottoline Morrell. His new acquaintances included Hasan Shahid Suhrawardy, Bertrand Russell, E. M. Forster and Aldous Huxley. Their meeting on 29 November 1915 with Lady Ottoline Morrell along with Philip Heseltine, Aldous Huxley, Willy MacQueen and Hasan Shahid Suhrawardy is recorded in his letters:

There was an Indian there - a lineal descendent of the Prophet, whose curse is a dreadful thing - and a young musician, and Bertie Russell. Of course we talked violently in between-whiles, politics and India and so on. I always shout too loud. That annoys the Ottoline. The Indian says (he is of Persian family): "Oh, she is so like a Persian princess, it is strange - something grand, and perhaps cruel." It is pleasant to see with all kinds of eyes, like Argus. Suhrawardy was my pair of Indo-persian eyes. He is coming to Florida. (Letters of D. H. Lawrence, vol. II )

After the war, Lawrence moved to Italy, France and Sicily, before going to America in 1922. He briefly visited friends in Ceylon first, before leaving for Austrialia and arriving on the west coast of the United States. In 1926, he returned to Italy and revived his friendship with Aldous Huxley. There he started writing Lady Chatterley's Lover (1928).

During the late 1920s, Lawrence visted London frequently. He met Mulk Raj Anand at a sherry party at Harold Monro's Poetry Bookshop. In Conversations in Bloomsbury (1981), Anand, who was still a student of philosophy then, describes the meeting thus: '"I am not sure which philosophy you are studying," said Lawrence and coughed a wheezy cough. "But I hope you can trust your eyes, nose, mouth, skin and the human sense against the ethereal Tagory"' (p. 23). Lawrence had previously been outspoken in his criticism of Tagore's indictment of nationalism, and his prejudices about the East made Anand uncomfortable. Already in 1916, Lawrence had scorned the writing of Tagore. In a letter to Lady Ottoline Morrell dated 24 May 1916, he wrote:

I become more and more surprised to see how far higher, in reality, our European civilizations stands than the East, India or Persia ever dreamed of. And one is glad to realize how these Hindus are horribly decadent and reverting to all forms of barbarism in all sorts of ugly ways. We feel surer on our feet, then. But this fraud of looking up to them - this wretched worship-of-Tagore attitude - is disgusting. "Better fifty years of Europe" even as she is. Buddha worship is completely decadent and foul nowadays: and it was always only half civilized. (The Collected Letters, p. 451)

Lawrence and Anand would remain friends, though. After returning to the continent, Lawrence's health deteriorated and he settled in Bandol, in the south of France, by the sea, where his friends rallied around him in his last months. Mulk Raj Anand visited Lawrence a few weeks before his death on 2 March 1930.

Published works: 

The White Peacock (London: William Heinemann, 1911)

The Trespasser (London: Duckworth, 1912)

Love Poems and Others (London: Duckworth, 1913)

Sons and Lovers (London: Duckworth, 1913)

The Prussian Officer and Other Stories (London: Duckworth, 1914)

The Widowing of Mrs Holroyd: A Drama in Three Acts (London: Duckworth, 1914)

The Rainbow (London: Methuen, 1915)

Amores (London: Duckworth, 1916)

Twilight in Italy (London: Duckworth, 1916)

Look! We Have Come Through! (London: Chatto & Windus, 1917)

New Poems (London: Martin Secker, 1918)

Bay: A Book of Poems (Westminster: Beaumont Press, 1919)

Touch and Go: A Play in Three Acts (London: C. W. Daniel, 1920)

Women in Love (New York: Privately printed for subscribers only, 1920)

The Lost Girl (London: Martin Secker, 1920)

Movements in European History (London: Mitford, 1921)

Psychoanalysis and the Unconscious (New York: Thomas Seltzer, 1921)

Sea and Sardinia (New York: Thomas Seltzer, 1921)

Tortoises (New York: Thomas Seltzer, 1921)

Aaron's Rod (London: Martin Secker, 1922)

England, My England, and Other Stories (New York: Thomas Seltzer, 1922)

Fantasia of the Unconscious (New York: Thomas Seltzer, 1922)

Birds, Beasts and Flowers (London: Martin Secker, 1923)

The Ladybird, The Fox, The Captain's Doll (London: Martin Secker, 1923)

Kangaroo (London: Martin Secker, 1923)

Studies in Classic American Literature (New York: Thomas Seltzer, 1923)

The Boy in the Bush (London: Martin Secker, 1924)

Reflections on the Death of a Porcupine, and Other Essays (Philadelphia: Centaur Press, 1925)

St Mawr, together with The Princess (London: Martin Secker, 1925)

David: A Play (London: Martin Secker, 1926)

The Plumed Serpent: Quetzalcoatl (London: Martin Secker, 1926)

Mornings in Mexico (London: Martin Secker, 1927)

The Collected Poems of D. H. Lawrence (London: Martin Secker, 1928)

Lady Chatterley's Lover (Florence: Privately printed, 1928)

The Woman who Rode Away, and Other Stories (London: Martin Secker, 1928)

The Escaped Cock (Paris: Black Sun Press, 1929)

Pansies (London: Martin Secker, 1929)

Love Among the Haystacks, and Other Pieces (London: Nonesuch Press, 1930)

Nettles (London: Faber, 1930)

The Virgin and the Gipsy (London: Martin Secker, 1930)

Apocalypse (Florence, 1931)

A Collier's Friday Night (London: Martin Secker, 1934)

D. H. Lawrence: Reminiscences and Correspondence (London: Martin Secker, 1934)

Fire and Other Poems (San Francisco: Grabhorn Press, 1940)

The Complete Poems of D. H. Lawrence, ed. by Vivian de Sola Pinto and Warren Roberts (London: Heinemann, 1964)

Study of Thomas Hardy and other Essays, ed. by Bruce Steele (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, [1914] 1985)

Sketches of Etruscan Places and Other Italian Essays, ed. by Simonetta de Filippis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, [1932] 1992)

The Letters of D. H. Lawrence, 8 vols, ed. by J. T. Boulton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979-2000)

Date of birth: 
11 Sep 1885

Richard Aldington, Mulk Raj Anand, Dorothy Brett, Achsah Brewster, Earl Brewster, Witter Bynner, Catherine Carswell, Norman Douglas, T. S. Eliot, Ford Madox Ford, E. M. Forster, Mark Gertler, Philip Heseltine (Peter Warlock), Aldous Huxley, S. S. Koteliansky, Maurice Magnus, Edward Marsh, Katherine Mansfield, Lady Ottoline Morrell, John Middleton Murry, Bertrand RussellNikhil Sen, Mollie Skinner, Hasan Shahid SuhrawardyRabindranath TagoreVirginia Woolf.

Contributions to periodicals: 

English Review

Secondary works: 

Apana, A. P., The Other Universe of Man: Travel, Autobiography and D. H. Lawrence (New Delhi: Prestige, 1999) 

Becket, Fiona, The Complete Critical Guide to D. H. Lawrence (London: Routledge, 2002) 

Black, Michael H., Lawrence's England: The Major Fiction, 1913-1920 (Basingstoke: Palgrave in association with St Anthony's, Oxford, 2001)

Brett, Dorothy, Lawrence and Brett: A Friendship (London: Martin Secker, 1933)

Bynner, Witter, Journey with Genius: Recollections and Reflections Concerning the D. H. Lawrences (London and New York: Peter Nevill, 1963)

Callow, Philip, Body of Truth: D. H. Lawrence: The Nomadic Years, 1919-1930 (London: Greenwich Exchange, 2006)

Callow, Phillip, Son and Lover: The Young D. H. Lawrence (London: Allison & Busby, 1998)

Carswell, Catherine Roxburgh, The Savage Pilgrimage: A Narrative of D. H. Lawrence (London: Chatto & Windus, 1932)

Chaudhury, Amit, D. H. Lawrence and Difference: Postcoloniality and the Poetry of the Present (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)

Cooper, Andrew, D. H. Lawrence, 1885-1930: A Celebration (Sherwood: D. H. Lawrence Society, 1985)

Corke, Helen, D. H. Lawrence: The Croydon Years (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1965)

Delany, Paul, D. H. Lawrence's Nightmare: The Writer and His Circle in the Years of the Great War (New York: Basic Books, 1978)

Ellis, David, Kinkead-Weekes, Mark and Worthen, John, D. H. Lawrence, 1885-1930: The Cambridge Biography (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

E. T. [Jessie Chambers], D. H. Lawrence: A Personal Record (London: Jonathan Cape, 1935)

Green, Martin Burgess, The von Richthofen Sisters: The Triumphant and Tragic Modes of Love: Else and Frieda von Richthofen, Otto Gross, Max Weber, and D. H. Lawrence, in the Years 1870-1970 (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1974)

Iida, Takeo, The Reception of D. H. Lawrence around the World (Fukuoka, Japan: Kyushu University Press, 1999)

Kinkead-Weekes, D. H. Lawrence: Triumph to Exile, 1912-1922 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996)

Kripalani, Krishna, Rabindranath Tagore: A Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962)

Lawrence, Frieda von Richthofen, 'Not I, But the Wind...' (London: Heinemann, 1935)

Lawrence, Frieda von Richthofen, E. W. Tedlock, The Memoirs and Correspondence (London: Heinemann, 1961)

Luhan, Mabel Dodge, Lorenzo in Taos (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1932)

Miller, Henry, The World of Lawrence: A Passionate Appreciation (Santa Barbara: Capra Press, 1980)

Moore, Harry Thornton, The Intelligent Heart: The Story of D. H. Lawrence (London: William Heinemann, 1955)

Murry, John Middleton, Reminiscences of D. H. Lawrence (London: Jonathan Cape, 1933)

Nehls, Edward, D. H. Lawrence: A Composite Biography, 3 vols (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1957-9)

Oh, Eunyoung, D. H. Lawrence's Border Crossing: Colonialism in His Travel Writings and 'Leadership' Novels (London: Routledge, 2007)

Page, Norman, D. H. Lawrence: Interviews and Recollections, 2 vols (London: Macmillan, 1981)

Parmenter, Ross, Lawrence in Oaxaca: A Quest for the Novelist in Mexico (Salt Lake City: G. M. Smith/Peregrine Smith Books, 1984)

Preston, Peter, A D. H. Lawrence Chronology (New York: St Martin's Press, 1994)

Roberts, Francis Warren, A Bibliography of D. H. Lawrence (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1963)

Sagar, Keith M., D. H. Lawrence: Life into Art (London: Viking, 1985)

Sagar, Keith M., D. H. Lawrence: A Calendar of His Works (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994)

Spencer, Roy, D. H. Lawrence Country: A Portrait of His Early Life and Background with Illustrations, Maps and Guides (London: Cecil Woolf, 1979)

Sumner, Rosemary, A Route to Modernism: Hardy, Lawrence, Woolf (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999)

Worthen, John, D. H. Lawrence: A Literary Life (London: Macmillan, 1989)

Worthen, John, 'Lawrence, David Herbert (1885-1939)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/34435]

Archive source: 

Photo of Hasan Shahid Suhrawardy, Philip Arnold Heseltine (Peter Warlock), David Herbert ('D. H.') Lawrence, NPG Ax140425, National Portrait Gallery, London

Correspondence, notebooks and mss, Bucknell University Library, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania

Correspondence and literary mss, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Colorado University

Correspondence and literary mss, Houghton Library, Harvard University

Literary Mss, papers and correspondence, Nottingham Central Library

Correspondence, Nottinghamshire Archives, Nottingham

Correspondence and papers, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas

Correspondence, literary mss and papers, Stanford University, California

Correspondence, literary mss and papers, University of California, Berkeley

Papers, University of California, Los Angeles

Literary mss, correspondence and papers, University of Nottingham Library

Literary mss and papers, University of New Mexico Library

Correspondence, literary mss and notebooks, Beinecke Library, Yale University

Papers, University of Cincinnati Libraries

Correspondence with Society of Authors, British Library, St Pancras

Letters to S. S. Koteliansky, British Library, St Pancras

Correspondence with A. Lowell, Houghton Library, Harvard University

Iowa State Education Association

Letters to E. M. Forster, King's College Archive Centre, Cambridge

Pierpont Morgan Library, New York

Berg Collection, New York Public Library

Philip H. & S. W. Rosenbach Foundation

Correspondence, Dora Marsden Collection, Princeton University Library

Corespondence, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library

Letters to A. Brackenbury, Tate Collection

Letters to F. Brett Young and J. Brett Young, University of Birmingham

Letters to B. Jennings and mss, University of Liverpool

Letters from D. H. and F. Lawrence to C. Carswell, University of Nottingham Library

University of Toronto Library

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Other names: 

David Herbert Lawrence

Date of death: 
02 Mar 1930

Garsington Manor, Oxford; 1 Byron Villas, Vale-of-Health, Hampstead, London.

Tags for Making Britain: 

Sasadhar Sinha


Sasadhar Sinha came to Britain to study for a BSc at the London School of Economics. He stayed on to complete a PhD at the same institution, returning to India shortly afterwards. On his return, Sinha failed to get a job because of the anti-government content of his journalism and lectures. Fearing arrest, he soon returned to Britain, where, in 1935, he opened the Bibliophile Bookshop at 16 Little Russell Street. The Ceylonese writer Alagu Subramaniam worked as Sinha’s assistant there, and the magazine Indian Writing, to which Sinha contributed regularly, was also based there. Indeed, the Bibliophile became known as a political meeting place for Indians.

As well as being prominent in anti-colonial and left-wing political circles in Britain, Sinha worked as an evening lecturer at Eltham Literary Institute and at Lewisham and Dulwich Literary Institute, lecturing on current affairs, Indian history, economics and political science. Along with several other South Asians during this period, he was a regular reader at the British Museum Reading Room where his reading matter was monitored by government officials who kept surveillance reports on politically active South Asians in Britain. He was married to Marthe Goldwyn, a teacher at Prendergast Girls’ School, Lewisham, and registered as a conscientious objector during the Second World War. By 1941, the Bibliophile was running out of funds and Sinha began to incur debts. He sold the bookshop in 1942 - to either Krishna Menon or one Robert Scott Cleminson - but remained its manager. In 1945, he returned to India to take ‘an active part in the nationalist movement in Bengal’ (L/PJ/12/467, p. 17).

Published works: 

Indian Independence and the Congress (London: Swaraj House, 1943) [booklet]

Why Famine in India (London: Swaraj House, 1943) [booklet]

Indian Independence in Perspective (London: Asia Publishing House, 1965)


L/PJ/12/467, India Office Records, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras, p. 7

Date of birth: 
01 Jan 1901

This file contains surveillance reports on Sasadhar Sinha dating from just before his return to England in 1933 to his departure for India in 1945. They document his occupations, his political activities, and his associations with other South Asians in Britain.


Ahmed Ali, Surat Alley, Mulk Raj Anand, Dr Vera Anstey (LSE), Kanwar Muhammad Ashraf, Sudhamay Basu, Dr K. C. Bhattacharyya (Sinha worked briefly as his secretary), Ray Choudhury, Sudhir Mohan Dutt, Professor Ginsberg (LSE), Marthe Goldwyn, Dulip Kumar Gupta, Agatha Harrison, Niharendu Datta Mazumdar, Krishna Menon, Ardesher Phirozsha Petigura, B. C. Sen, K. S. Shelvankar, Alagu Subramaniam, Gajindra Hiralal Thakore.

Contributions to periodicals: 

Indian Writing (regular contributor)

Precise DOB unknown: 

Sinha…is still the proprietor of the Bibliophile Book Shop…From observation kept on this shop, it would seem to be primarily a rendezvous for Indians. On several occasions recently, particularly in the afternoons, as many as twenty-five Indian men and women have been seen to enter and remain on the premises for some considerable time. When leaving none of them appeared to have purchased any of the various extremist books and pamphlets displayed for sale in the window.

Secondary works: 

Visram, Rozina, Asians in Britain: 400 Years of History (London: Pluto, 2002)


Of particular interest is Sinha’s establishment of the Bibliophile Bookshop in 1935. This is evidence of the presence of South Asians in Bloomsbury, the heart of London and its literary scene, during this early period of migration. The bookshop’s role as meeting place for politically active South Asian writers, as well as the content of the editorials of Indian Writing and Sinha’s involvement in numerous political organizations, are suggestive of the way in which Sinha, and many of his fellow writers, viewed literature and political commitment as closely linked, in contrast to a belief in ‘art for art’s sake’. The level and detail of the surveillance kept on Sinha is also striking: of particular note in this respect is evidence that the political content of Sinha’s choice of reading matter at the British Museum was monitored.

Archive source: 

L/PJ/12/467, India Office Records, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras

Involved in events: 

India League meetings

City of birth: 
Santini, Ketan, Bengal
Country of birth: 


London School of Economics
Houghton Street
London, WC2A 2AE
United Kingdom
51° 30' 50.1948" N, 0° 6' 59.6736" W
Bibliophile Bookshop
16 Russell Street
London, WC2B 5HF
United Kingdom
51° 30' 45.6336" N, 0° 7' 16.1472" W
Date of death: 
01 Jan 1972
Date of 1st arrival in Britain: 
01 Jan 1925
Precise 1st arrival date unknown: 
Dates of time spent in Britain: 

1925-32, 1933-45

Venu Chitale


Venu Chitale was a talks broadcaster and assistant to George Orwell at the BBC’s Indian Section of the Eastern Service. She arrived in Britain in the mid-1930s. She had come to Britain with her teacher in Poona, Winnie Duplex, to study at University College, London.

She joined the BBC in 1940 when the service expanded to broadcast different Indian languages including Marathi, her mother tongue. From 1941, Chitale assisted George Orwell in his work as a talks programme assistant for the BBC Indian section of the Eastern Service from 1941-43. She broadcast on his series of talks ‘Through Eastern Eyes’ as well as his 1942 magazine programme 'Voice'. She also broadcast as part of the series of talks ‘The Hand That Rocks The Cradle’, which focused on the role of women in the war effort. Like Indira Devi of Kapurthala, she also broadcast on the Home Service, where she served as a newsreader at the height of the war. She contributed to programmes such as ‘Indian Recipes’ and the ‘Kitchen Front’ series, which was produced by Jean Rowntree. Orwell was particularly impressed by Chitale and she was often complimented for her speaking voice. She became a full-time member of staff as the Marathi Programme Assistant in 1942.

While in London, Chitale also became involved with the India League and forged a close relationship with Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, Jawaharlal Nehru’s sister. She returned to India in 1950 and married Prof T. G. Khare. She published several novels and died in 1995.

Published works: 

In Transit, Foreword by Mulk Raj Anand (Bombay: Hind Kitabs, 1950)

Incognito (Pune: Sriniwas Cards, 1993)

Date of birth: 
28 Dec 1912
Secondary works: 

De Souza, Eunice and Pereira, Lindsay (eds), Women’s Voices: Selections from Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth Century Indian Writing in English (Delhi: OUP India, 2002)

West, W. J. (ed.), Orwell: The War Broadcasts (London: Duckworth/BBC, 1985)

Archive source: 

BBC Written Archives Centre, Caversham Park, Reading

City of birth: 
Shirole, Kolhapur
Country of birth: 
Other names: 

Leelabhai Ganesh Khare


Central Club YMCA
Great Russell Street
London, W.C.1B 3PE
United Kingdom
51° 31' 4.8504" N, 0° 7' 36.2964" W
48 New Cavendish Street
London, W1W 6XY
United Kingdom
51° 31' 8.2956" N, 0° 8' 57.3864" W
Date of death: 
01 Jan 1995
Precise date of death unknown: 
Location of death: 
Date of 1st arrival in Britain: 
01 Jan 1937
Precise 1st arrival date unknown: 
Dates of time spent in Britain: 


Aubrey Menen


Aubrey Menen was a writer, essayist, broadcaster, journalist, drama critic and activist. His work explored the question of nationalism and the cultural contrast between his own Irish-Indian ancestry and his traditional British upbringing. He was born to an Irish mother and an Indian father in 1912 and was brought up in Islington, later moving to Forest Hill, south London. He studied philosophy at University College London (UCL), where he formed his own drama group, and befriended the artist Duncan Grant who introduced him to many members of the Bloomsbury Group, including John Maynard Keynes and Virginia Woolf. He persuaded H. G. Wells to allow him to adapt The Shape of Things to Come, even though Wells had already sold the rights to Alexander Korda. Korda agreed to three closed performances, which caused a sensation. At UCL he was rejected for the Rosa Morrison Bursary by the then Jewish Master of the college on the grounds that he was not of 'pure' English descent.

After graduating in 1932, Menen became the drama critic for The Bookman from 1933 to 1934. He also became involved with Krishna Menon's India League and toured the regions as a speaker. So that he would not be confused with Menon, a friend of his father's, he anglicized his name to Menen. In 1934, Menen, together with the actor Andre van Gysegham, founded the Experimental Theatre, which sought to create a politically engaging theatre in alternative performance spaces. His radical plays regularly ran into difficulties with the Lord Chamberlain and he was sued for blasphemy and obscenity for his 1934 play Genesis II. From 1937 to 1939 he worked as director of the Personalities Press Service. In April 1939 he moved to Bombay, finding work at All-India Radio. During the Second World War, he worked as a script writer and editor for propaganda broadcasts for the Government of India. He also broadcast regularly on the radio and became a leading radio personality in India. He subsequently worked for the advertising agency J. Walter Thompson's film department. In the late 1940s, after the war, he became a full-time writer. He briefly returned to Britain in the autumn 1947 to oversee the publication of The Prevalence of Witches. In 1948 he moved to Italy, to live in what he described as a space midway between India and England. He lived there until 1980. He spent his final years living in Kerala, where he died in 1989.

Menen's output was prolific and covered a variety of genres. Starting his career as a dramatist and critic, he moved to radio journalism. He authored nine novels, several travel books, autobiographical works, essays and reviews. He also published a version of The RamayanaRama Retold, which was banned in India but, despite its radical implications, performed in London amidst some controversy. His fiction is driven by a caustic satire and his essays reveal a passionate desire to break down the falsity of racial myths of 'Aryan' superiority, whether in India amongst Nairs or in Nazi Germany; a similar perspective is evident in relation to the hypocrisy of racial stereotyping in Britain. Menen expresses in his non-fiction the advantage of dual vision: born to Indian and Irish parents, brought up as a brown Englishman in Britain, and in India always a foreigner. This liminality takes on sexual dimensions throughout his autobiographical essays which reflect, despite his conversion to Catholicism, a radical homosexuality.

Published works: 

The Prevalence of Witches (London: Chatto & Windus, 1947)

The Stumbling-Stone, etc. (London: Chatto & Windus, 1949)

The Backward Bride (London: Chatto & Windus, 1950)

The Duke of Gallodora (London: Chatto & Windus, 1952)

Dead Man in the Silver Market: An Autobiographical Essay on National Pride (London: Chatto & Windus, 1954)

Rama Retold (London: Chatto & Windus, 1954)

The Abode of Love: The Conception, Financing and Daily Routine of an English Harem in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century Described in the Form of a Novel (London: Chatto & Windus, 1957) 

The Fig Tree (London: Chatto & Windus, 1959)

Rome Revealed (London: Thames & Hudson, 1960)

SheLa: A Satire (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1963)

Speaking the Language Like a Native: Aubrey Menen on Italy (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1963)

A Conspiracy of Women (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1966)

The Space Within the Heart (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1970)

Cities in the Sand (London: Thames & Hudson, 1972)

Upon this Rock (New York: Saturday Review Press, 1972)

The New Mystics and the True Indian Tradition (London: Thames & Hudson, 1974)

Fonthill: A Comedy (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1975)

(with photographs by Brian Seed) London (Amsterdam: Time-Life Books, 1976)

(with the editors of Time-Life Books and photographs by Brian Seed) Venice (Amsterdam: Time-Life Books, 1976)

Art and Money: An Irreverent History (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980)

Date of birth: 
22 Apr 1912

Mulk Raj Anand, Z. A. Bokhari, Bertold Brecht, Marc Chagall, Kamala Das (poet and relative), Roger Fry, William Golding, Duncan Grant, Andre van Gyseghem, John Maynard Keynes, Alexander Korda, S. M. Marath, Krishna Menon, Jawaharlal Nehru, Santha Rama Rau, George Bernhard Shaw, Ernst Toller, Gore Vidal, H. G. Wells, Virginia Woolf.

Contributions to periodicals: 

The Bookman


Vanity Fair

Secondary works: 

Elias, Mohammed, Aubrey Menen, vol. 7 (Madras: Macmillan, 1985) 

Innes, C. L.,  A History of Black and Asian Writing in Britain, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)

Nasta, Susheila, Home Truths: Fictions of the South Asian Diaspora in Britain (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002)

Ranasinha, Ruvani, South Asian Writers in Twentieth-Century Britain: Culture in Translation (Oxford: Clarendon, 2007)

Vijayan, K. B., Asvastharaya Pratibhasalikal (Kottayam: Current Books, 1995)

Archive source: 

Private papers and mss, Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center, University of Boston


Involved in events: 

Campaigned for the India League as a speaker in the regions

Propaganda broadcasting during the Second World War on All-India Radio

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Other names: 

Aubrey Menon


Charlotte Street Bloomsbury
London, W1T 4LU
United Kingdom
51° 31' 7.3416" N, 0° 8' 6.0612" W
Date of death: 
13 Feb 1989
Location of death: 
Trivandrum, India
Dates of time spent in Britain: 

1912-39, 1947-8


Islington, London; Forest Hill, London.

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