C. F. Andrews


C. F. Andrews was ordained as an Anglican priest in 1897. In 1904, Andrews went to Delhi as a missionary to take up a post at St Stephen's College where he soon became Principal. He supported the appointment of S. K. Rudra as Principal of St Stephen's College in 1907, the first Indian Principal. In 1912, Andrews returned to England and met Rabindranath Tagore at William Rothenstein's house in London. This began a friendship that led Andrews to base himself in Santiniketan from 1914, having renounced his priesthood in the same year. Andrews was involved in the editing of various Tagore publications and acted as his representative to the publisher Macmillan. Before this, in 1914, Andrews went to South Africa and met Mohandas Gandhi. They too became close friends.

Andrews became involved with the Indian National Congress and travelled the world to investigate the conditions of Indians in places such as Fiji, Kenya and Guiana. In 1931, he accompanied Gandhi to the Second Round Table Conference in London. He wrote a number of books on India, Gandhi and Christ. Andrews returned to the Anglican Church in 1936. The royalties from his autobiography, What I Owe to Christ (1932), were donated to Tagore's ashram in Santiniketan.

Published works: 

Christ and Labour (London: Student Christian Movement, 1924)

The Opium Evil in India (London: Student Christian Movement, 1926)

Letters to a Friend: Rabindranath Tagore's Letters to C. F. Andrews (1928)

Mahatma Gandhi at Work (New York: Macmillan, 1931)

Christ in Silence (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1933)

What I Owe to Christ (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1932)


Christ and Prayer


(London: Student Christian Movement, 1937)

Sadhu Sundar Singh (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1937)

The Rise and Growth of Congress in India (1938)

The True India: A Plea for Understanding (London: Allen & Unwin, 1939)

The Good Shepherd (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1940)

The Sermon on the Mount (London: Allen & Unwin, 1942)

Mahatma Gandhi's Ideas (1949)

Date of birth: 
12 Feb 1871
Contributions to periodicals: 

The Listener

Modern Review

New Statesman

Secondary works: 

Chaturvedi, B. and Sykes, M., Charles Freer Andrews (London: Allen & Unwin, 1949)

Gandhi, Leela, Affective Communities. Anticolonial Thought and the Politics of Friendship (Delhi: Permanent Black, 2006)

Gracie, David M. (ed.), Gandhi and Charlie: The Story of a Friendship (Cambridge, Mass.: Cowley, 1989)

O'Connor, Daniel, A Clear Star: C. F. Andrews and India 1904-1914 (New Delhi: Chronicle Books, 2005)

Tinker, Hugh, ‘Andrews, Charles Freer (1871-1940)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004) []

Tinker, Hugh, The Ordeal of Love: C. F. Andrews and India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1979)

Visvanathan, Susan, 'S. K. Rudra, C. F. Andrews, and M. K. Gandhi: Friendship, Dialogue and Interiority in the Question of Indian Nationalism', Economic and Political Weekly, 24 August 2002, pp. 3532-41

Archive source: 

Correspondence and papers, Mss Eur D113, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras

Correspondence with E. J. Thompson, Bodleian Library, Oxford

Correspondence with Gandhi and Tagore, McGregor-Ross Collection, Rhodes House, Oxford

Tagore Archives, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan

Bishop's College, Kolkata

Correspondence, National Archives of India, New Delhi

Gandhi Smarek Sanghrahlaya Samiti, Rajghat, Delhi

Deenbandhu Memorial Papers, St Stephen's College Library, Delhi

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Other names: 

Charles Freer Andrews

Charlie Andrews

Date of death: 
05 Apr 1940
Location of death: 
Calcutta, India
Tags for Making Britain: 

Robert Graves


Robert von Ranke Graves was born in 1895 to Alfred Perceval Graves and Amalie Elizabeth Sophie. Brought up in a literary family, Graves published his poetry in The Carthusian as early as 1911. In 1914, he was destined for St John's College, when war broke out and he was commissioned into the Royal Welsh Fusiliers. In 1916, he was badly wounded and believed to be dead, and in 1917 he was hospitalized with shell-shock. After he was decommissioned in 1919, he began studying English at St John's College, Oxford.

It was at the Lotus Club in Oxford in 1922 that Graves met Basanta Kumar Mallik, a Bengali who studied law then philosophy at Oxford. Mallik was sixteen years older than Graves but the two became close friends. They shared a commitment to truth and to morality, a discomfort with received tradition, and a search for an understanding and a resolution of the phenomenon of war. While Mallik returned to India in 1923, his philosophy had a significant impact on Graves' writing. This influence can be found in many of the poems included in the latter half of Whipperginny (1923), the 'Introductory Letter' to The Feather Bed (1923), Mock Beggar Hall (1924)and Welchman's Hose (1925). The 'M' of Graves' poem 'To "M" in India' (The Marmosite's Miscellany, 1925) refers to Mallik. The friendship soured, however, and when Mallik returned to Britain in 1936 Graves refused to meet him. The circumstances surrounding their falling out remain obscure but it is known that all references to Mallik have been expunged from editions of Graves' autobiography Good-Bye To All That subsequent to 1929.

After a brief stint as professor of English Literature at Cairo University in 1926, Graves returned to England in July 1926 where he embarked on a sexual and working relationship with Laura Riding, spending some time in Deyá, Mallorca. His writing improved and he wrote the prize-winning historical novel, I, Claudius (1934). By the end of 1934, Graves had sold the film rights for I, Claudius to Alexander Korda. It was to star Charles Laughton and Merle Oberon but the project never materialized.

Graves continued to write throughout his life and had several mistresses. In the 1950s, his reputation soared and he won several prizes, held professorships and gave talks in the United States. In the 1970s, his health started to decline and he ended his working life in 1975. He lived for another ten years until he died from heart failure on 7 December 1985 in Mallorca.

Published works: 

Over the Brazier (London: Poetry Bookshop, 1916)

Fairies and Fusiliers (1917)

Goliath and David (London: Charles Whittingham, 1917)

Country Sentiment (London: Martin Secker, 1920)

 On Poetry: Being an Irregular Approach to the Psychology of this Art (London: William Heinemann, 1922)

The Feather Bed (Richmond: L. and V. Woolf, 1923)

Whipperginny (London: Heinemann, 1923)

The Meaning of Dreams (London: Cecil Palmer, 1924)

Mock Beggar Hall (London: L. and V. Woolf, 1924)

Contemporary Techniques of Poetry: A Political Analogy (London: L. and V. Woolf, 1925)

John Kemp's Wager: A Ballad Opera (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1925)

The Marmosite's Miscellany (London: L. and V. Woolf, 1925)

My Head! My Head!: Being the History of Elisha and the Shunamite Woman; With the Histiry of Moses as Elisha Related It, and Her Questions Put to Him (London: Martin Secker, 1925)

Welchman's Hose (London: The Fleuron, 1925)

Another Future of Poetry (London: L. and V. Woolf, 1926)

Impenetrability; or, the Proper Habit of English (London: L. and V. Woolf, 1926)

The English Ballad: A Short Critical Survey (London: Ernest Benn, 1927)

Lars Porsena; or, The Future of Swearing and Improper Language (London: Kegan Paul, 1927)

Poems, 1914-1926 (London: William Heinemann, 1927)

(with Laura Riding) Survey of Modernist Poetry (London: William Heinemann, 1927)

Mrs Fisher; or, the Future of Humour (London: Kegan Paul, 1928)

Good-Bye To All That: An Autobiography (London: Jonathan Cape, 1929)

But It Still Goes On: An Accumulation (1930)

Poems, 1930-1933 (1933)

The Real David Copperfield (London: Barker, 1933)

Claudius the God and His Wife Messalina (London: Arthur Barker, 1934)

I, Claudius (London: Arthur Barker, 1934)

Lawrence and the Arabs (Jonathan Cape, 1934)

'Antigua, Penny, Puce' (Deyá, Mallorca: Seizin Press, 1936; London: Constable, 1936)

The Antigua Stamp (New York: Random House, 1937)

Collected Poems (London: Cassell, 1938)

Count Belisarius (London: Cassell, 1938)

The Long Week-End: A Social History of Great Britain, 1918-1939 (London: Faber & Faber, 1940)

No More Ghosts: Selected Poems (London: Faber & Faber, 1940)

Sergeant Lamb of the Ninth (London: Methuen, 1940)

Proceed, Sergeant Lamb (London: Methuen, 1941)

The Story of Marie Powell, Wife to Mr Milton (London: Cassell, 1943)

The Golden Fleece (London: Cassell, 1944)

Hercules, My Shipmate: A Novel (New York: Creative Age Press, 1945)

King Jesus (London: Cassell, 1946)

Poems, 1938-1945 (1946)

(with Alan Hodge) The Reader Over Your Shoulder: A Handbook for for Writers of English Prose (London: Cape, 1947)

Collected Poems (1948)

The White Goddess: A Historical Grammar of Poetic Myth (1948)

The Common Asphodel: Collected Essays on Poetry, 1922-1949 (1949)

The Islands of Unwisdom (Garden City: Doubleday, 1949)

Seven Days in New Crete: A Novel (London: Cassell, 1949)

Occupation: Writer (New York: Creative Age Press, 1950)

The Nazarene Gospel Restored (London: Cassell, 1953)

Majorca Observed (London: Cassell, 1954)

Adam's Rib and Other Anomalous Elements in the Hebrew Creation Myth (Clairvaux: Trianon Press, 1955)

The Crowning Privilege (London: Cassell, 1955)

The Greek Myths, Vols 1 & 2 (London: Penguin, 1955)

Homer's Daughter (London: Cassell, 1955)

Catacrok! Mostly Stories, Mostly Funny (London: Cassell, 1956)

(ed.) English and Scottish Ballads (London: William Heinemann, 1957)

Jesus in Rome: A Historical Conjecture (London: Cassell, 1957)

Five Pens in Hand (Garden City: Doubleday, 1958)

Collected Poems, 1959 (London: Cassell, 1959)

The Growing Privilege: Collected Essays on Poetry (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1959)

Food for Centaurs: Stories, Talks, Critical Studies, Poems (Garden City: Doubleday, 1960)

Greek Gods and Myths (Garden City: Doubleday, 1960)

More Poems (London: Cassell, 1961)

Myths of Ancient Greece (London: Cassell, 1961)

The Big Green Book (New York: Crowell-Collier Press, 1962)

The More Deserving Cases: Eighteen Old Poems for Reconsideration (Marlborough: Marlborough College Press, 1962)

New Poems, 1962 (London: Cassell, 1962)

Oxford Addresses on Poetry (London: Cassell, 1962)

Nine Hundred Iron Chariots (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1963)

Ann at Highwood Hall (London: Cassell, 1964)

Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis (London: Cassell, 1964)

Man Does, Woman Is (London: Cassell, 1964)

Love Respelt (London: Cassell, 1965)

Mammon and the Black Goddess (London: Cassell, 1965)

Colophon to 'Love Respelt' (London: Rota, 1967)

Beyond Giving: Poems (London: Bernard Rota, 1969)

The Crane Bag, and Other Disputed Subjects (London: Cassell, 1969)

Advice from a Mother (London: Poem-of-the-Moth Club, 1970)

The Green-Sailed Vessel: Poems (London: Bertram Rota, 1971)

Difficult Questions, Easy Answers (London: Cassell, 1972)

The Hanged My Saintly Billy (London: Arrow Books, 1972)

At the Gate: Poems (London: Bertram Rota, 1974)

Collected Poems (London: Cassell, 1975)

An Ancient Castle (London: Peter Owen, 1980)

In Broken Images: Selected Letters of Robert Graves, 1914-1946 (London: Hutchinson, 1982)

Eleven Songs (Deyá, Mallorca: New Seizin Press, 1983)

Between Moon and Moon: Selected Letters of Robert Graves, 1946-1972 (London: Hutchinson, 1984)

Cynics and Romantics (Sidcot: Gruffyground Press, 1989)

Across the Gulf: Late Poems (Mallorca: New Seizin Press, 1992)


Graves, Robert, Good-Bye To All That: An Autobiography (London: Jonathan Cape, 1929), pp. 403-4

Date of birth: 
24 Jul 1895

Robert Graves describes Basanta Kumar Mallik's philosophy.

Contributions to periodicals: 

Basanta's philosophy was a development of formal metaphysics, but with characteristically Indian insistence on ethics. He believed in no hierarchy of ultimate values or the possibility of any unifying religion or ideology. But at the same time he insisted on the necessity of strict self-discipline in the individual in meeting every possible demand made on him from whatever quarter, and he recommended constant self-watchfulness against either dominating or being dominated by any other individual. This view of strict personal morality consistent with scepticism of social morality agreed very well with my practice.

Secondary works: 

Graves, Richard Perceval, 'Graves, Robert von Ranke (1895-1985)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford Univesity Press, 2004) []

Graves, Richard Perceval, Robert Graves: The Assault Heroic, 1895-1926 (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1986)

Graves, Richard Perceval, Robert Graves: The Years with Laura, 1926-1940 (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1990)

Graves, Richard Perceval, Robert Graves and the White Goddess, 1940-1985 (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1995)

Quinn, Patrick J., The Great War and the Missing Muse: The Early Writings of Robert Graves and Siegfried Sassoon (Selinsgrove: Susquehanna University Press, 1994; London: Associated University Presses, 1994)

Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli, Basanta Kumar Mallik: A Garland of Homage (London: Vincent Stuart, 1961)

Sondhi, Madhuri Santanam, and Walker, Mary M., 'Basanta Kumar Mallik and Robert Graves: Personal Encounters and Processes in Socio-Cultural Thought', Gravesiana 1 (1996), pp. 109-46

Archive source: 

Correspondence and papers, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois

Papers, University of Liverpool Library

Correspondence, literary MSS and papers, University of San Francisco

Correspondence, diaries and literary MSS, University of Victoria, British Columbia

Letters to Alexander Pugh and letters to E. J. Thompson, Bodleian Library, Oxford

Correspondence with Kenneth Charles Gay, Lilly Library, Bloomington, Indiana University

Correspondence with Basil Liddell Hart, Liddell Hart Centre, King's College, London

Letters to W. S. Henry and letters to C. K. Scott Moncrief, National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh

Letters to Alun Lewis and Gweno Lewis, National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth

Letters and MSS to Edward Marsh, New York Public Library, New York

Correspondence with Edmund Blunden, University of Iowa, Iowa City

Letters to James Reeves, University of San Francisco Library

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Other names: 

Robert von Ranke Graves

Date of death: 
07 Dec 1985
Location of death: 
Deyá, Mallorca, Spain

St John's College, Oxford


Ernest Rhys


Ernest Rhys was a writer and literary editor. He founded and edited the Everyman's Library for J. M. Dent & Sons. He was also a poet and one of the founding members of the 'Rhymers' Club' in London in 1890.

In 1912 or 1913, he went to see a play written by Rabindranath Tagore at the Little Theatre at the Albert Hall, having been given the ticket by a young Bengali student in London. It was there in the audience that he first saw Tagore. Tagore then became a regular visitor to Rhys' home in Hampstead and became friends with Ernest and his wife, Grace. In 1913, Rhys helped Tagore revise Sadhana for publication and in 1936 he anonymously edited Tagore's Collected Poems and Plays. Rhys wrote a biography of Tagore for Macmillan in 1915.

Published works: 

Everyman Remembers (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1931)

Rabindranath Tagore: A Biographical Study (London: Macmillan, 1915)

Wales England Wed (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1940)


Rhys, Ernest, Everyman Remembers (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1931), p. 273

Date of birth: 
17 Jun 1859

Rhys describes Tagore's first visit to his house at 48 West Heath Drive, North London, in 1912 or 1913.


Rabindranath Tagore's first coming to '48' was another event. I had been to an Indian play in a small theatre, invited there by a young poet who afterward introduced me to Tagore and promised to bring him to see us one day. But when he arrived, he looked so like an old Hebrew prophet, with so august a presence, that we were overawed, and wondered what we should say to so formidable a personage. However, he proved to be the simplest and most natural of guests, and the easiest to entertain. He did not require to be fed on mangoes and tamarinds, loved a good story, enjoyed a good laugh, and had a graceful way of making light of his own poetry.

Secondary works: 

Dutta, Krishna and Andrew Robinson (eds), Selected Letters of Rabindranath Tagore (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997)

Waugh, Alec, ‘Rhys, Ernest Percival (1859–1946)’, rev. Katharine Chubbuck, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2007) []


This extract gives insight into how Tagore dispelled preconceived notions that Indians eat mangoes and tamarinds and are difficult to relate to. It portrays the beginning of a close friendship between a British man and an Indian man.

Archive source: 

Correspondence with Tagore, Visva-Bharati Archives, Santiniketan

City of birth: 
Islington, London
Country of birth: 
Date of death: 
25 May 1946
Location of death: 

48 West Heath Drive, Hampstead

Tags for Making Britain: 

Ernest Christopher Dowson


Ernest Dowson was a poet. In the late 1890s, Dowson also translated French literature into English (including Zola, Balzac and Voltaire). He was one of a batch of young poets who represent the work of the last decade of the nineteenth century in England. He was intimately involved with the Rhymers' Club in London during this period, but died at a young age (32) from a combination of drink, depression and ill-health resulting from severe financial problems.

In 1886, Dowson entered Queen's College, Oxford. In his second year, an Indian student called Satis Chandra Mookerjee joined the college. As a result of his praise of bhang, Dowson and his friends experimented with cannabis. Dowson remained in touch with Mookerjee; they were both part of a group of four who visited the Gaiety Theatre in March 1889 (see Dowson letter to Arthur Moore, 24 March 1889).

Dowson left Oxford in 1888 and it was in London, in September 1890, that Lionel Johnson introduced Dowson to the Primavera poet and former Oxford student Manmohan Ghose. From letters to various friends, it appears that Dowson became quite enamoured with Ghose, describing him variously as 'charming' and 'beautiful lotus-eyed'. His correspondence mentions Ghose until the middle of 1891 when Dowson was planning to bring out a book called 'The Book of the Rhymers Club' which he hoped would include Ghose's work. When the book did come out, Ghose's name was not among the contributors who included Lionel Johnson, T. W. Rolleston, Arthur Symons and W. B. Yeats.

Published works: 

(in collaboration with Arthur Moore) A Comedy of Masks (1893)

Dilemmas: Stories and Studies in Sentiment (1895)

Verses (1896)

The Pierrot of the Minute (1897)

Adrian Rome (in collaboration with Arthur Moore) (1899)

Decorations: In Verse and Prose (1899)


Letter to Charles Sayle, c.25 Nov. 1890, in Flower and Maas (eds), The Letters of Ernest Dowson (London: Cassel, 1967), p. 177

Date of birth: 
02 Aug 1867

Letter telling Charles Sayle what Dowson has been up to recently. This includes seeing a lot of the 'people in Fitzroy St' and especially Lionel Johnson.


Manmohan Ghose, Lionel Pigot Johnson, Satis Chandra Mookerjee (fellow student at Queen's College, Oxford, who was called to the Bar in 1891 and entered the ICS; he introduced Dowson and Thomas to bhang), Arthur Moore (nephew of Henry Moore), Victor Plarr, Ernest Rhys, William Rothenstein, Charles Sayle, Arthur Symons, W. R. Thomas, Oscar Wilde, William Butler Yeats.

The Rhymers' Club

Contributions to periodicals: 

The Century Guild Hobby Horse

Macmillan's Magazine

The Savoy


Another charming person, of whom I am seeing much also, & whom doubtless you know is Ghose the Primavera poet: a divinely mad person!

Secondary works: 

Flower, Desmond and Maas, Henry (eds), The Letters of Ernest Dowson (London: Cassell & Co., 1967)

Plarr, Victor, Ernest Dowson, 1888–1897: Reminiscences, Unpublished Letters and Marginalia (London: E. Mathews, 1914)

Richards, Bernard, ‘Dowson, Ernest Christopher (1867–1900)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2007) []

Thomas, W. R., 'Ernest Dowson at Oxford', The Nineteenth Century and After CIII.614 (April 1928), pp. 560-6


While it is not clear why Dowson describes Ghose as 'divinely mad', this letter reveals the frequent contact that Dowson was having with Ghose and the association between Ghose and the Fitzroy St group. The letter reveals a great deal of familiarity with Ghose on the part of Dowson and his friends.

Archive source: 

Correspondence with Arthur Moore, Pierpont Morgan Library, New York

City of birth: 
Lee, Kent
Country of birth: 
Date of death: 
23 Feb 1900
Location of death: 

Woodford, Essex; Fleet Street, London (where the Rhymers' Club often met).

Tags for Making Britain: 

Ranjee G Shahani


Ranjee Shahani was born in 1904 and travelled to Britain some time in the mid-1920s. He had a D.Litt from Paris and his first wife, Suzanne, was from Normandy, France. His second wife was Leticia V. Ramos from the Philippines.

In 1928, Shahani was writing a thesis on Shakespeare and asked advice from Edward Garnett. His book Shakespeare through Eastern Eyes was published in 1932. Shahani became a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 1933, although this lapsed in 1934. In 1934, he wrote to Rabindranath Tagore that he wished to put together a selection of Thomas Sturge Moore's poems. In this, Shahani mentioned that he had talked to "AE" and William Rothenstein, and thus appeared to have various connections with the British literary establishment. Shahani was also a member of the India Society and spoke regularly at their meetings.

Shahani lived in France with his wife, daughter and mother-in-law from 1938, but then returned to England in 1941 due to the war. In the 1940s, he wrote a series of articles called 'Some British I admire' for The Asiatic Review, which included Laurence Binyon, Charles Lamb and E. M. Forster. He died in 1968, and at time of his death was Professor of English Literature at Seton Hall University, near New York.

Published works: 

Towards the Stars: being an appreciation of 'Phoenix and the Turtle', introduction by Edward Garnett and appreciation by André Marouis (1930)

Shakespeare through Eastern Eyes, introduction by J. Middleton Murray and appreciation by Emile Legouis (London: H. Joseph, 1932)

The Changeling (London: H. Joseph, 1933) [written under the pseudonym Hassan Ali]

The Coming of Karuna, with appreciation by Havelock Ellis (London: John Murray, 1934) 

A New Pilgrim's Progress (London: World Congress of Faiths pamphlet, 1938)

Indian Pilgrimage (London: Michael Joseph, 1939)

A White Man in Search of God (London: Lester & Welbeck, 1943)

The Amazing English (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1948)

The Indian Way (Bombay: Hind Kitabs Ltd, 1951)

Mr Gandhi (New York, 1961)

Date of birth: 
01 Jan 1904

Clifford Bax, Launcelot Cranmer-Byng, Isobel Cripps and Richard Stafford Cripps, Benedetto Croce, Havelock Ellis, E. M. Forster, Edward Garnett, Eric Gill, John Glasworthy, Emile Legouis, Sylvain Levi, Thomas Sturge Moore, John Middleton Murray, Eric Partridge, S. Radhakrishnan, Romain Rolland, William Rothenstein, George Russell (AE), Rabindranath Tagore, Edward Thompson, Leonard Woolf, Francis Yeats-Brown, Francis Younghusband, Yusuf Ali.

Contributions to periodicals: 

Various articles for Indian Art and Letters

Various articles for Asiatic Review

Contributed to The Sufi: A Journal of Mysticism

Various stories for Saint Detective Magazine (1960)

Spectator (16 August 1940)

Reviews of Sri Aurobindo's Collected Poems and Plays and Mulk Raj Anand's The Sword and the Sickle Times Literary Supplement, 1942

'The Asiatic Element in Swinburne', The Poetry Review 33.4 (July - August 1942)

'The Phoenix and the Turtle', Notes and Queries CXCI (1946)

Precise DOB unknown: 

G. Wilson Knight, The Criterion (Towards the Stars)

Malcolm Muggeridge, Daily Telegraph, 25 April 1939 (Indian Pilgrimage)

H. G. Wells refers to Shakespeare Through Eastern Eyes in Wells, H. G., Crux Ansata: An Indictment of the Roman Catholic Church (London: Penguin, 1943)

Archive source: 

Paper read to East India Association, 'Literary Interpreters of India: A Selective Study',(9 November 1943), Maynard Papers, Mss EUR F224/74, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras

Letter to E. M. Forster, Mary Lago Archive, University of Missouri; EMF/18/453/3, King's College Archive, Cambridge

Correspondence with Edward Garnett, Garnett Collection, McCormick Library of Special Collections, Northwestern University

Letter to William Rothenstein, Rothenstein Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard

Letters to Leonard Woolf, Leonard Woolf Archive, University of Sussex, Brighton

Letter to Rabindranath Tagore, Thomas Sturge Moore Correspondence, Visva Bharati Archives, Santiniketan

Involved in events: 

Attended World Congress of Faiths, University College, London, July 1936. Other speakers at the Congress include S. Radhakrishnan, Yusuf Ali, and Dr S. N. DasGupta

Lectured on 'The Influence of India on Western Culture' to India Society, presided by E. M. Forster, 4 Dec. 1942

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Current name city of birth: 
Current name country of birth: 
Other names: 

Ranjee Gurdassing Shahani

Ranjee Gurdasing Shahani

Hassan Ali


80 Eaton Terrace, Solane Square,
London, SW1W 8TY
United Kingdom
51° 29' 34.8792" N, 0° 9' 14.3964" W
Horniton House,
Flood Street,
London, SW3 5TB
United Kingdom
51° 29' 10.3056" N, 0° 9' 55.2168" W
Date of death: 
01 Jan 1968
Precise date of death unknown: 
Location of death: 
Dates of time spent in Britain: 

mid 1920s - 1936, 1941


21 Cromwell Road, South Kensington (in 1928)

Honiton House, Flood Street, Chelsea, London (1932-1936)

Beaulieu-Sur-Mer, France (1938-39)

80 Eaton Terrace, Sloane Square, London (1941)

54 Onslow Gardens, SW7, London (1948)

Tags for Making Britain: 

Hasan Shahid Suhrawardy


As a student at Oxford, Hasan Shahid Suhrawardy helped Robert Bridges (poet laureate) select the 'oriental' poems for The Spirit of the Man (London: Longmans, 1915). On 29 November 1915, Suhrawardy, with D. H. Lawrence and Philip Arnold Heseltine, visited Lady Ottoline Morrell. [A photo of which, taken by Lady Ottoline, is available in the National Portrait Gallery.] Other guests recorded in the visitors' book that day included Aldous Huxley.

Suhrawardy was a poet and art critic, who also worked as a diplomat. He was the son of Justice Sir Zahid Suhrawardy and Khujesta Akhtar Banu and nephew of Abdullah Al-Mamun Suhrawardy who had also studied at Oxford. Suhrawardy was a graduate of Presidency College, Calcutta, before sailing for England. After graduating from Oxford, he taught English at the Imperial University of St Petersburg and at the Women's University in Moscow. Amongst his students was Alexander Kerensky, the Prime Minister of Russia. Suhrawardy was a member of the producers' committee at the Moscow Art Theatre and worked with the composer, Igor Stravinsky. He witnessed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1919 and then moved to France. He returned to India in the 1920s to pursue research in art, teaching in Calcutta and Hyderabad. He also translated works from Russian and Chinese into English.

His younger brother, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, who was at Oxford at the same time, was Prime Minister (the post now called Chief Minister) of Bengal in 1946 and Prime Minister of Pakistan, 1956-7. Due to similar sounding names and the same initials with his brother, Hasan Shahid Suhrawardy is often known as Shahid Suhrawardy. He should also not be confused with his uncle Sir Hassan Suhrawardy.

Published works: 

Faded Leaves (London: J. M. Baxter, 1910)

'Narcisse-Mallarméen; Chinoiserie: Samainesque' in Oxford Poetry 1915 (Oxford: Blackwells, 1915)

Bartold, V. V., Mussulman Culture, translated from the Russian by Shahid Suhrawardy (Calcutta: Calcutta University Press, 1934)

Essays in Verse (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1937)

Prefaces [Lectures on Art Subjects] (Calcutta: Calcutta University Press, 1938)

Lee, Hou-chu, Poems of Lee Hou-chu, rendered into English from the Chinese by Liu Yih-lung and Shahid Suhrawardy (Bombay: Orient Longmans, 1948)

'The Writer and his Freedom' in Pakistan PEN Miscellany 1, ed. by Ahmed Ali (Karachi: Kitab, 1950)

The Art of the Mussulmans in Spain (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2005), with introduction by Naz Ikramullah Ashraf.


Letter from D. H. Lawrence to Lady Cynthia Asquith, 5 December 1915, in George J. Zytanek and James T. Boulton (eds) The Letters of D. H. Lawrence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), volume II, p. 466.

Date of birth: 
24 Oct 1890

D. H. Lawrence is describing his visit to Lady Ottoline Morrell's (on 29 November 1915) and the people he met - including Suhrawardy. In this extract, Lawrence is recounting Suhrawardy's comments about Lady Ottoline.


Ahmed Ali (friends and co-founders of Pakistan PEN - a writing organization), Robert Bridges, D. H. Lawrence, Philip Arnold Heseltine (aka Peter Warlock - composer and music critic), Aldous Huxley, Basanta Kumar Mallik (students at Oxford together), Lady Ottoline Morrell, Jawaharlal Nehru, Jamini Roy, Kiran Shankar Roy (students at Oxford together), Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (his brother, who was Prime Minister of Bengal and Pakistan), Rabindranath Tagore (met when Tagore visited Oxford in 1913).

Contributions to periodicals: 

Art critic for The Statesman (Calcutta), 1940-7.

'Tagore at Oxford', The Calcutta Municipal Gazette: Tagore Memorial Special Supplement, 13 September 1941.


The Indian says (he is of Persian family): 'Oh, she is so like a Persian princess, it is strange - something grand, and perhaps cruel.' It is pleasant to see with all kinds of eyes, like argus. Suhrawardy was my pair of Indo-persian eyes. He is coming to Florida.

Secondary works: 

Hosain, Shahid (ed.), First Voices: Six Poets from Pakistan: Ahmed Ali, Zulfikar Ghose, Shahid Hosain, Riaz Qadir, Taufiq Rafat, Shahid Suhrawardy (Lahore: Oxford University Press, 1965)

Shamsie, Muneeza, A Dragonfly in the Sun: An Anthology of Pakistani Writing in English (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1997)

Talukdar, Mohammad H. R. (ed.), Memoirs of Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with a brief account of his life and work (Dhaka: Dhaka University Press, 1987)

Zytankek, George J. and Boulton, James T. (eds), The Letters of D. H. Lawrence, volume II, June 1913-Oct. 1916 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981)


This extract reveals Lawrence's deep admiration for Suhrawardy and his intentions to take him to Florida with him (which did not materialize). Lawrence is keen to stress the Persian descent of Suhrawardy, but also sees Suhrawardy as an interpreter of Eastern views (Indo-persian eyes).

Archive source: 

Portrait with D. H. Lawrence and P. A. Heseltine, National Portrait Gallery, London

L/PJ/12/3, India Office file on his activities in Moscow and Europe, April 1917 - February 1935, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras

City of birth: 
Midnapore, Bengal
Country of birth: 
Other names: 

Shahid Suhrawardy


Oxford, OX1 3BQ
United Kingdom
51° 43' 26.2992" N, 1° 16' 30.414" W
Date of death: 
03 Mar 1965
Location of death: 
Karachi, Pakistan

Manmohan Ghose


Manmohan Ghose was the son of Dhan Ghose and his wife, Swarnalata Basu. His younger brother was Sri Aurobindo (Aravinda) Ghose, the politician and spiritual leader.

Manmohan, a brilliant scholar, was educated at Manchester grammar school (1881–4), St Paul's School in London (1884–7) and won an open scholarship to Christ Church, Oxford which he took up in 1887.

Ghose became close friends with Laurence Binyon at St Paul's, bonding over their love for the Classics and Matthew Arnold. Binyon credited Ghose for introducing him to Indian literature, art and philosophy. Binyon joined Oxford a year after Ghose and they collaborated on the poetry publication, Primavera, published in 1890. In the vacations he and his brothers stayed at 128 Cromwell Road, London, the office of the South Kensington Liberal Club. The Liberal Club's secretary was J. S. Cotton, editor of the Academy, who was born in India and whose publication reviewed Primavera. Ghose later met Oscar Wilde at the Fitzroy Street settlement, who reviewed Primavera in the Pall Mall Gazette, with particular favour towards Ghose. During this time in London, Ghose met many other members of the 'Rhymers' Club' set such as Lionel Johnson and Ernest Dowson, who were both very fond of him. Dowson had wished for Ghose's work to be included in The Book of the Rhymers Club that was published in 1892, but Ghose was unable to contribute as he could not share the cost of the expenses.

In 1893, after his father’s death, Ghose returned to India in mourning and took a series of teaching posts in Patna, Bankipur, and Calcutta. In 1897 he was appointed Assistant Professor at Dacca College and full Professor in 1901. After the death of his wife, Malati Banerjee, in 1918, his health deteriorated and he aged prematurely. For thirty years Ghose had cherished the dream of returning to England. In 1924 he booked a passage for himself and his daughters for a date in March, but he died in Calcutta, on 4 January 1924 after a short illness, three weeks before his retirement from Presidency College.

Published works: 

(with Laurence Binyon, Arthur Shearly Cripps and Stephen Phillips) Poems, by Four Authors (Stephen Phillips, Laurence Binyon, Manmohan Ghose, Arthur S. Cripps) (Oxford: B. H. Blackwell, 1890)

Love-Songs and Elegies, in the Elkine Mathews Shilling Garland series, 9 (April 1898)

Poem in The Garland of New Poetry by Various Writers (London: E. Mathews, 1898) [Other poems by Binyon, Image, Coleridge, Victor Plarr, A. Romney Green]

Songs of Love and Death, ed. with an introduction by Laurence Binyon, 3rd edn (Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1968 [1926])

Collected Poems, ed. by Lotika Ghose, 4 vols (Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1970-77)

Selected Poems, ed. by Lotika Ghose (New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1974)

Date of birth: 
19 Jan 1869

Laurence Binyon, Arthur Cripps, Ernest Christopher Dowson, Aravinda Ackroyd Ghose (brother), Lionel Pigot Johnson, Stephen Phillips, Rabindranath Tagore (Ghose translated Tagore's 'Paras Pathar' into English), Oscar Wilde.


Oscar Wilde, Pall Mall Gazette, 24 May 1890 (Primavera)

Athenaeum, 24 May 1890 (Primavera)

J. A. Symonds, Academy, 9 August 1890 (Primavera)

Hobby Horse, 5, 1890 (Primavera)

Queen, 10 Jan 1891

J. Freeman, London Mercury, April 1926 (Songs of Love and Death)

Secondary works: 

Flower, Desmond and Henry Maas (eds), The Letters of Ernest Dowson (London: Cassell & Co., 1967) 

Gandhi, Leela, Affective Communities: Anticolonial Thought and the Politics of Friendship (Durham: Duke University Press, 2006) 

Ghose, Aurobindo, Life, Literature, Yoga. Some New Letters of Sri Aurobindo. (Reprinted from "Mother India") (Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1952)

Ghose, Lotika, Manmohan Ghose (New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1975)

Gray, N., 'Friends of my Father, Laurence Binyon', Private Library 3rd ser., 8 (1985), pp. 79–91

Hatcher, John, Laurence Binyon: Poet, Scholar of East and West (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995)

Krishnamurti, Gutala, 'Ghose, Manmohan (1869–1924)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004)[]

Presidency College Magazine 10.3 (March 1924)

Purani, Ambalal Balkrishna, Sri Aurobindo in England (Pondicherry, 1956)

Purani, Ambalal Balkrishna, The Life of Sri Aurobindo (Pondicherry, 1964)

Sharma, J. S., The National Biographical Dictionary of India (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1972) 

Archive source: 

Letters to Laurence Binyon, Loan 103 from Mrs Nicolette Gray, Manuscript Collection, British Library, St Pancras 

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 


St Paul's School
Talgarth Street
Hammersmith, London, W14 9DJ
United Kingdom
51° 29' 25.9548" N, 0° 12' 39.2076" W
South Kensington Liberal Club
128 Cromwell Road
South Kensington, London, SW7 4TP
United Kingdom
51° 29' 41.082" N, 0° 11' 12.0012" W
Christ Church College Oxford, OX1 1DP
United Kingdom
51° 43' 26.2992" N, 1° 16' 30.414" W
Date of death: 
04 Jan 1924
Location of death: 
Calcutta, India
Date of 1st arrival in Britain: 
01 Jan 1879
Precise 1st arrival date unknown: 
Dates of time spent in Britain: 


Tags for Making Britain: 

Bonamy Dobree


Bonamy Dobrée was a literary scholar and university teacher, best known for his works on Restoration and eighteenth-century drama. In 1925-6, he taught at London University, and he became Professor of English at University of Leeds in 1936. He was educated and trained as a professional soldier, and fought with distinction during the First World War. He is also famous as a Kipling critic.

During his lectureship in London, Dobrée became a part of the Bloomsbury Group. He was a close friend of T. S. Eliot, whom he met in 1924 in Leonard Woolf’s house in Richmond, and with whom he regularly met up for lunches in London. The two men shared a love for Kipling as an artist, and in 1926 Eliot commissioned him to write an essay on Kipling for the Criterion. Among Dobrée’s other friends was Herbert Read, with whom he collaborated to edit The London Book of English Prose (1931) and English Verse (1949).

Dobrée was, in Richard Hoggard’s words, a ‘teacher and patron of young men’. Mulk Raj Anand, in his Conversations in Bloomsbury, presents a similar picture. Anand met Dobrée through his fellow student Nikhil Sen shortly after his arrival in London in 1925. Anand records a lively conversation he had with Dobrée, Sen and Gwenda Zeidmann in Museum Tavern, and a relaxing evening together with Dobrée, his wife Valentine, Sen, and Irene Rhys at Francis Meynall’s flat in the summer of 1926. In 1925, Dobrée introduced Anand to T. S. Eliot, and helped him to set up a meeting with the poet. He proved to be a good friend and mentor, despite the fact that his views on British India and admiration of Kipling occasionally offended Anand.

Published works: 

Restoration Comedy, 1660-1720 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1924)

Essays in Biography, 1680-1726 (London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, 1925)

(ed.) Comedies of Congreve, The World’s Classics (London: H. Milford, 1925)

Histriophone: A Dialogue on Dramatic Diction (London: L. & V. Woolf, 1925)

Timotheus: The Future of the Theatre (London: Kegan Paul & Co., 1925)

Rochester: A Conversation between Sir George Etherege and Mr. Fitzjames (London: L. & V. Woolf, 1926)

Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough (London: Gerald Howe, 1927)

(ed. with Geoffrey Webb) The Complete Works of Sir John Vanbrugh (Bloomsbury: Nonesuch Press, 1927-8)

Restoration Tragedy, 1660-1720 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929)

The Lamp and the Lute: Studies in Six Modern Authors (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929)

Essays of the Year (1929-1930) (London: Argonaut, 1930)

(ed. with Herbert Read) The London Book of English Prose (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1931)

Variety of Ways: Discussions on Six Authors (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932)

(ed.) The Letters of Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1932)

Giacomo Casanova, Chevalier de Seingalt (London: Peter Davies, 1933)

As Their Friends Saw Them: Biographical Conversations (London: Cape, 1933)

John Wesley (London: Duckworth, 1933)

Modern Prose Style (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1934)

(with G. E. Manwaring) The Floating Republic: An Account of the Mutinies at Spithead and the Nore in 1797 (London: Geoffry Bles, 1935; Penguin, 1937)

(ed.) The Letters of King George III (London: Cassell & Co., 1935) 

English Revolts (London: Herbert Joseph, 1937)

(ed.) From Anne to Victoria: Essays by Various Hands (London: Cassell & Co., 1937)

The Unacknowledged Legislator: Conversation on Literature and Politics in a Warden’s Post, 1941 (London: Allen & Unwin, 1942)

Arts’ Faculties in Modern Universities (Leeds: E. J. Arnold & Son, 1944) 

(with Herbert Read) London Book of English Verse (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1949)

Alexander Pope (London: Sylvan Press, 1951)

The Broken Cistern (London: Cohen & West, 1954)

John Dryden (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1956) 

(ed. with Louis MacNeice and Philip Larkin) New Poems, 1958 (London: Michael Joseph, 1958)

English Literature in the Early Eighteenth Century, 1700-1740 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959)

(ed.) Algernon Charles Swinburne: Poems (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1961)

Three Eighteenth Century Figures: Sarah Churchill, John Wesley, Giacomo Casanova (London: Oxford University Press, 1962)

(ed.) Shakespeare: The Writer and his Work (London: Longmans, 1964)

Rudyard Kipling: Realist and Fabulist (London: Oxford University Press, 1967)

Milton to Ouida: A Collection of Essays (London: Cass, 1970)


Mulk Raj Anand, Conversations in Bloomsbury (Delhi: OUP, 1995), p. 50

Date of birth: 
02 Feb 1891

Anand met Bonamy Dobrée and T. S. Eliot for lunch in the Etoile.


Ahmed Ali, Mulk Raj Anand, Clive Bell, Francis Birrell, Jean Cocteau, Valentine Dobrée, T. S. Eliot, E. M. Forster, Aldous Huxley, Philip Larkin, D. H. Lawrence, Wyndham Lewis, Louis MacNeice, Francis Meynall, Harold Monro, Alfred Richard Orage, Ezra Pound, Ananda Vittal Rao, Herbert Read, Irene Rhys, Nikhil Sen, George Bernard Shaw, Leonard Woolf, Virginia Woolf, Gwenda Zeidmann.

Kipling Society (Vice-President)

Contributions to periodicals: 

Egoist (‘Impression’, 3.6, 1 June 1916, p. 95)

Egoist (‘Court-Martial’, 3.7, 1 July 1916, p. 111)

New Statesman (‘Drama and Values’, 14.344, 1919, pp. 161-2)

Nation and Athenaeum (‘Young Voltaire: A Conversation between William Congreve and Alexander Pope, Twickenham, September 1726’, 15.5, 1926, pp. 179-80)

New Criterion (‘The World of Dean Inge’, 5.1, January 1927, pp. 109-14)

New Criterion (review of Rudyard Kipling, Debits and Credits, 5.1, January 1927, pp. 149-51)

Monthly Criterion (review of Wyndham Lewis, The Lion and the Fox, 5.3, June 1927, pp. 339-43)

Monthly Criterion (‘Rudyard Kipling’, 6.6, December 1927, pp. 499-515)

Monthly Criterion (review of D. H. Lawrence, The Woman Who Rode Away, 8.30, September 1928, pp. 139-41)

Spectator (review of Leonard Woolf, After the Deluge, 147.5393, 7 November 1931)

Spectator (review of Sacheverell Sitwell, Spanish Baroque Art, 147.5378, 25 July 1931, pp. 132-3)

Spectator (‘Travel in Egypt’, 29 October 1932, p. 592)

Criterion (review of Col. P. G. Elgood, Bonaparte’s Adventure in Egypt, 11.44, April 1932, pp. 557-60)

Criterion (‘Macaulay’, 12.49, July 1933, pp. 593-604)

Spectator (‘Mr. Bernard Shaw’, 152.5512, 16 February 1934)

Spectator (‘The Shavian Situation’, 153.5533, 1934, p. 46)

Criterion (review of Ananda Vittal Rao, A Minor Augustan, 14.55, January 1935)

ELH (‘Milton and Dryden: A Comparison and Contrast in Poetic Ideas and Poetic Method’, 3.1, March 1936, pp. 83-100)

Southern Review (‘The Plays of Eugene O'Neill’, 2, 1937, pp. 435-46)

Criterion (review of T. H. Wintringham, Mutiny, 14.64, April 1937, p. 573)

Spectator (review of Ahmed Ali, Twilight in Delhi, 165.5863, 8 November 1940)

Spectator (review of Mulk Raj Anand, Across the Black Waters, 165.5865, 22 November 1940)

Spectator ('Virginia Woolf: Her Art as a Novelist', 174.6088, 2 March 1945)

Sewanee Review (‘Mr. O’Neill’s Last Play’, 56, 1948, pp. 118-26)

Sewanee Review (‘The Confidential Clerk, by T. S. Eliot’, 62, 1954, pp. 117-31)

Sewanee Review (‘The London Stage’, review of T. S. Eliot, The Elder Statesman, 67, 1959, pp. 109-17)

Sewanee Review (‘Durrell’s Alexandrian Series’, 69, 1961, pp. 61-79)

Kipling Journal (‘Rudyard Kipling: Poet’, 32.156, 1965, pp. 33-41)

Sewanee Review (‘T. S. Eliot: A Personal Reminiscence’, 74.1, January - March 1966, pp. 85-108)

Shenandoah: The Washington & Lee University Review (‘W. H. Auden’, 18.2, 1967, pp. 18-22)

Malahat Review: An International Quarterly of Life and Letters (‘The Poems of Thomas Hardy: Lyric or Elegiac?’, 3, 1967, pp. 77-92)

Malahat Review (with Herbert Read, ‘Beauty - or the Beast! A Conversation in a Tavern’, 1969, pp. 178-86)


The Times, 19 August 1925, p. 10

Richard Aldington, New Criterion 4.2, April 1926, pp. 381-4 (Restoration Comedy: 1660-1720; Essays in Biography, 1680-1726; Comedies of Congreve; Histriophone; Timotheus: The Future of the Theatre)

Mario Praz, Criterion 8.30, September 1928, pp. 153-6 (The Complete Works of Sir John Vanbrugh)

Sherard Vines, Criterion 11.44, April 1932, pp. 529-32 (The London Book of English Prose)

Williard Thorp, Criterion 11.45, July 1932, pp. 749-51 (Variety of Ways: Discussion of Six Authors)

Keith Feiling, Criterion 12.46, October 1932, pp. 118-21 (The Letters of Philip Dormer Stanhope)

M. A., Criterion 13.50, October 1933, p. 172 (Giacomo Casanova, Chevalier de Seingalt)

T. C. Wilson, Criterion 14.55, January 1935, pp. 337-40 (Modern Prose Style)

John Garrett, Criterion 15.59, January 1936, pp. 137-9 (The Floating Republic)

Michael de la Bedoyere, Criterion 15.60, April 1936 (The Letters of King George III)


‘I don’t agree with defiance of law,’ Eliot said. ‘The British have done much good in India.’

I looked at him, then bent my head down. After a while, Dobrée said: ‘That is what I have told this rebel. Look at the unity we have given you. And the railways.’

I was perspiring under the collar, through the humiliation of having been flogged by the police. I had been cultivating the will to decide on the struggle against, what Gandhi called, the satanic British.

And now I wanted, even through my bluff and bluster, to cultivate the vision of freedom for India – freedom against all the enemies, the family, the brotherhood, the stupid lazy people and the conformists.

‘I am going to rewrite Kipling’s Kim,’ I said at last, ‘from the opposite point of view.’

‘Some hopes!’ Dobrée said.

He sensed my discomfiture and offered us more coffee.

Secondary works: 

Butt, John (ed.) Of Books and Humankind: Essays and Poems presented to Bonamy Dobrée (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964)

Morrish, P. S., ‘Bonamy Dobrée, Theatre Critic of The Nation & Athenaeum’, Notes and Queries 29 (1982), pp. 344-5

Sherbo, Arthur, ‘Restoring Bonamy Dobrée: Additions to the Canon of His Writings’, Notes and Queries 49(247).1 (March 2002), pp. 96-7


The extract gives insights into Dobrée’s relationship with Mulk Raj Anand, and his views of the place of India in the British empire and of Indian nationalism.

Archive source: 

Papers of Professor Bonamy Dobrée, Leeds University Library Special Collections

Correspondence, Hogarth Press Archives, University of Reading

Correspondence, King’s College Archive Centre, Cambridge University

Involved in events: 
City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Date of death: 
03 Sep 1974
Location of death: 

East London College, University of London (lecturer, 1925-6); The Egyptian University, Cairo (Professor of English, 1926-9); University of Leeds (Chair of English Literature, 1936-55); City University, London (Gresham Professor in Rhetoric, 1955-6).

Basanta Kumar Mallik


Basanta Mallik was a significant twentieth-century Indian philosopher who followed his studies in philosophy at the University of Calcutta (BA, 1902; MA, 1903) with a period as a student then academic at the University of Oxford. Mallik began his time at Oxford as a law student, gaining a BA in Jurisprudence in 1916; he went on to complete a Certificate in Physical and Cultural Anthropology (1918) and a Diploma in Anthropology (1919). His studies at Oxford were sponsored by the Prime Minister of Nepal (Mallik worked initially as a tutor for his sons but later took up many government roles, especially in foreign affairs). Unable to return home after the First World War broke out, he resumed his first love, philosophy, getting agreement from his patrons to begin a BLitt (PhD).

Able to remain in Oxford, he became part of closely knit group of friends and frequently visited Robert Bridges at Boar’s Hill. He met Robert Graves at a Lotus Club dinner in 1922 and significantly influenced the poet’s early work. Graves treated him as a mentor and was fascinated with his metaphysical and philosophical meditations on breaking down conflict, violence and the clash of civilizations. Traces of this influence are evident in Graves’s early work, in collections such as Mock Beggar Hall, appealing to the pacifist interests of the Hogarth Press and Leonard Woolf. Mallik also established close friendships with T. E. Lawrence, Sydney Lewis and Sam Harries who met up at Boar’s Hill or in Mallik’s Oxford rooms. He was active in the Lotus Club and was friends with many other Indians in Oxford. His ideas attempted to bridge philosophical debates drawn from ‘East’ and ‘West’; Mallick, like others of his generation, was widely read in both traditions. His belief that the effect of British rule in India had made untenable the concepts of equality and freedom on which humanist ideals were based made him an anti-imperialist, although he did not believe in violent resistance. Mallik went back to Nepal in 1923 and then to Calcutta. He returned to Oxford in 1938 where he continued to write, lecture and publish until his death in 1958.

The friendship with Graves is recorded in the first edition of Robert Graves’s autobiography, published in 1929, Goodbye to All That. Graves and his family cut off the close relations with Mallik soon after he returned to Nepal in 1923 and once Graves had decided not to follow him there with others of the group. Graves deletes all references to Mallik in later editions of his autobiography (see Sondhi and Walker on the complexities of this relationship).

Published works: 

The Individual and the Group: An Indian Study in Conflict (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1939)

The Real and the Negative (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1940)

Gandhi - A Prophecy (Oxford: Hall the Publisher, 1948)

Related Multiplicity (Oxford: Hall the Publisher, 1952)

The Towering Wave (London: Vincent Stuart Publishers Ltd, 1953)

Non Absolutes (London: Vincent Stuart Publishers Ltd, 1956)

Mythology and Possibility (London: Vincent Stuart Publishers Ltd, 1960)

Date of birth: 
01 Jan 1879

F. W. Bateson, Robert Bridges, R. G. Collingwood, Alfred Graves, Robert Graves, Sam Harries, E. B. Havell, T. E. Lawrence, Sydney Lewis, Winifred Lewis, Wyndham Lewis, A. D. Lindsay, Lady Ottoline Morell, King of Nepal, Harold Nicholson, Nancy Nicholson, K. M. Panikkar, H. J. Paton, Shuaib Qureshi, S. Radakrishnan, Edgell Rickward, Lady Cecilia Roberts, Wilfred Roberts, W. D. Ross, Siegfried Sassoon, Hasan Shahid Suhrawardy, Rabindranath Tagore, W. B. Yeats.

Basanta Kumar Mallik Trust, Exeter College, University of Oxford.

Contributions to periodicals: 

The Winter Owl (‘Interchange of Selves’, 3, 1923)

Precise DOB unknown: 
Secondary works: 

Lewis, Wyndham (ed.) Basanta Kumar Mallik: A Garland of Homage (London, 1961)

Sondhi, Madhuri, The Making of Peace: A Logical and Societal Framework according to Basanta Kumar Mallik (New Delhi, 1985)

Sondhi, Madhuri and Sondhi, M. L., ‘Remembering Basanta Kumar Mallik (1879-1958)’, The Round Table 301 (1987), pp. 64-73

Sondhi, Madhuri and Walker, Mary M., ‘Basanta Kumar Mallik and Robert Graves: Personal Encounters and Processes in Socio-Cultural Thought’, Gravesiana: The Journal of the Robert Graves Society 1.11 (December 1996), pp. 109-46

Involved in events: 

Development of several Majlis meetings in Oxford

Lotus Club dinner for Tagore, Randolph Hotel, Oxford, 1913

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Current name city of birth: 


Exeter College
University of Oxford
Oxford, OX1 3DP
United Kingdom
51° 45' 32.652" N, 1° 15' 24.0048" W
Date of death: 
01 Dec 1958
Precise date of death unknown: 
Location of death: 
Date of 1st arrival in Britain: 
01 Jan 1912
Precise 1st arrival date unknown: 
Dates of time spent in Britain: 

1912-23, 1938-

Nikhil Sen


Nikhil Sen was a friend of Mulk Raj Anand and moved in the same circles in London in the 1920s. Little is known about Sen; however, Anand mentions him extensively in Conversations in Bloomsbury (1981).

It appears that Sen was already in London when Anand arrived in 1925. Like Anand, Sen was a student at University College, London. He was also a poet and an art lover. According to Anand, Sen studied in the British Museum Reading Rooms and the two often lunched together in University College lower refectory, the Museum Tavern or at Poggiolis in Charlotte Street. Sen's girlfriend was Edna Thompson, who was a student of literature; other fellow students included Mr. Topa and Parkash Pandit. Sen apparently worked at Arthur Probsthain’s Oriental Bookshop in Russell Street, and found work for Anand in Jacob Schwartz’s Ulysses Bookshop.  

Furthermore, Sen already knew several members of the 'Bloomsbury Group' when Anand arrived in Britain. Indeed, it was Sen who introduced Anand to Bonamy Dobree, Gwenda Zeidmann, Jacob Schwartz, Harold Monro, Edith Sitwell, Laurence Binyon and Leonard Woolf. Together they met T. S. Eliot, Aldous Huxley and D. H. Lawrence, and they would go to the British Museum with Laurence Binyon. Like Anand, Sen was frustrated by the orientalist views of some members of the Bloomsbury Group and would often argue with Eliot and Lawrence.


Mulk Raj Anand (fellow student), Laurence Binyon, Bonamy Dobree, T. S. Eliot, Aldous Huxley, C. E. M. Joad (Assistant Professor, Birkbeck College), D. H. Lawrence, Harold Monro, Parkash Pandit (fellow student), Jacob Schwartz (Probsthain’s Oriental Bookshop), Edith Sitwell, Edna Thompson (girlfriend and fellow student), Mr. Topa (fellow student), Leonard Woolf, Gwenda Zeidmann.

Secondary works: 

Mulk Raj Anand, Conversations in Bloomsbury (London: Wildwood House, 1981)


Arthur Probsthain's Bookshop
41 Great Russell Street
London, WC1B 3PE
United Kingdom
51° 31' 4.6776" N, 0° 7' 36.6672" W
Tags for Making Britain: 


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